Our beliefs direct our lives and how we think. The initial part of this post comes from an American Scientist (4 April 2015, 28-33) article by Graham Lawton.
Initially our beliefs are determined by default. Children believe what they are told. This is fortunate, otherwise the child’s development would be retarded. So our brains are credulous. A brain imaging study by Sam Harris illustrated how our brain responds to belief. People were put in a brain scanner and asked whether the believed in various written statements. Statements that people believed in produced little characteristic brain activity, just a few flickers in regions associated with reasoning and emotional reward. However, disbelief produced longer and stronger activation in regions associated with deliberation and decision making. Apparently it takes the brain longer to reach a state of disbelief. Statements that were not believed also activated regions associated with emotion such as pain and disgust. These responses make sense when regarded from an evolutionary perspective.
There is also a feeling of rightness that accompanies our beliefs. This makes evolutionary sense except in the case of delusional beliefs. People suffering from mental illness can feel quite strongly about delusional beliefs. And when we here a belief from a friend or acquaintance we find to be incredulous, we might ask, “Are you out of your mind?”
So a reasonable question is where does this feel in of rightness originate. One is our evolved biology, that has already been discussed. Another is personal biology. The case of mental illness has already been mentioned, but there are less extreme examples that researchers have found. For example, conservatives generally react more fearfully than liberals to frightening images as reflected in measures of arousal such as skin conductance and eye-blink rate.
Of course, the society we keep influences both what we believe and the feeling of rightness. We tend to associate with like minded people and this has a reinforcing effect on our beliefs.
The problem with beliefs is that progress depends on the questioning of beliefs. The development and advancement of science depended on questioning not only religious beliefs, but the adequacy of these beliefs. Progress in the political arena depended on questioning the validity of the concepts of royalty and privileged positions.
Beliefs are a good default position. Absent beliefs, it would be both difficult and uncomfortable to live. Nevertheless, beliefs should be challenged when they are clearly incorrect or when they are having undesired consequences,
My personal belief about beliefs is that we manage to live on the basis of internal models we develop about the world. But I don’t believe that any of my beliefs are certain. They are weighted with probabilities that can change as the result of new information (data) or as the result of new thinking and reasoning. Even my most strongly held beliefs are still hedged with some small degree of uncertainty.
A good example of this is Pascal’s argument for believing in God. His argument was that the payoff for not believing in God could be extremely painful. However, even if one’s belief was infinitesimally small, one should believe. I have always found this to be one of the few philosophical arguments to be compelling. So I believe in God. Anyone who does believe in God has the comfort of this belief while living. And if there is no God, one will be dead and have no means of knowing that one was wrong.
Richard Dawkins is a brilliant scientist that has made significant contributions to science. However, he is one of the most outspoken atheists. Recently he has admitted that he does have some uncertainty and that he is more accurately an agnostic. However, he argues that he is far enough down on the agnosticism scale to call himself an atheist. Here we have a stupid argument from a brilliant man.
I find that many of the problems people have regarding the existence of God stem from religion. It is important to keep in mind that religions are human institutions and are flawed. Religions have done much good, but they have also done harm. Apart from Pascal’s wager, I have a philosophical need for God. Of course, I realize that my philosophical needs are not necessarily supported by reality.
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