Archive for September, 2015

Humans Are Underrated

September 29, 2015

Humans are Underrated:  What High Achievers Know That Brilliant Machines Never Will by Geoff Colvin purports to relieve any concerns we might have of being replaced by computers.  His argument is that the human understanding of interpersonal relationships and empathy are essential skills that humans have that will never be replaced by computers.  I would also argue that the human understanding of interpersonal relationships and empathy are skill that are limited to small groups.  The history of the species is one of warfare and conflicts, to include enslavement and attempts at exterminating other groups.  He contradicts himself by also stating that no one should ever say what computers can’t do.  However, even if computers can never achieve empathy, there will still be a massive displacement of humans by computers.  If this is your primary interest then you should read another book reviewed in the immediately preceding healthymemory blog post, The Second Machine Age:  Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brunjolfsson & Andrew McAfee, a book that addresses the problem and proposes solutions in an accurate and thorough manner.

Nevertheless, there is much of value and interest in Colvin’s book.  I shall hit some highlights here and address some other topics in future healthy memory blog posts.
He argues that our brains were built for understanding and interacting with others.  He argues, correctly, that empathy is the foundation of  the other abilities that increasingly make people valuable  as technology advances.

Colvin also notes that although computers will never be able to incorporate empathy or other interpersonal skills, IT can nevertheless be used to train interpersonal skills.  Many examples are taken from research done for the military.

He also writes of the importance of narratives.  This is an especially important topic and warrants its own future post.

Colvin makes a compelling argument that females have better interpersonal and empathic skills than do males.  The number of females on a team contribute positively to the performance of that team.  And the best teams consist exclusively of females.  So it is likely that females shall provide the lead in the future.  We are already seeing movements in that direction as there is a higher percentage of females in college than males and a higher percentage of female graduates.

Colvin ends on an optimizing note encouraging us all to grow and improve.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

The Second Machine Age

September 26, 2015

The Second Machine Age:  Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies is the title of a book by Erik Brunjolfsson & Andrew McAfee.  If I needed to make a list of required readings for this blog, this book would most definitely be on it.  The authors are from MIT’s Sloan School of Management.  One of the reasons I am recommending this book is that it is an excellent example of first rate scholarship. The second reason is that it provides an understanding of why middle class wages are not keeping up with increases in economic productivity.  Perhaps more importantly, it discusses the future and the choices that confront us then.  On one hand, it could be an enjoyable paradise supplying the future that was promised me that I complain about during all of my Labor Day Post rants.  On the other, hand the future could be a virtual nightmare.

The book begins by explaining the difference between the Second Machine Age, in which we are in, with the first Machine Age.  Human social development has remained relatively stagnant until the current century, during which it has exploded.   There are three reasons for this explosion. .

The first is Moore’s Law that characterized the explanation growth of technology.  One chapter discusses the second half of the chess board.  This is where exploitation growth truly jumps.    In other words, we haven’t seen anything yet.

The second reason is digitization.  It is possible to digitize an enormous number of items.  This digitization enables the benefits from the exponential explosion.

The third reason has to do with the combinatorial explosion of different technologies.  There are so many ways that digital products can be linked together that its potential is almost incomprehensible.

The reality is that technology will rapidly take over more and more jobs done by humans.  The authors are strongly of the opinion that humans should do what humans do best and that machines should do what machines do best.  Of course, as machines take over more and more tasks, there will be less for humans to do.  However, humans will always have certain unique capabilities, I call them our special sauce.

Nevertheless, there will be fewer and fewer tasks that need to be done in the future.  The authors take us into the future and offer differ ways of dealing with this problem.   One way of looking at this is is that this problem can be used as an opportunity to provide humans with more free time for personal growth and enjoyment.  However, unless this is dealt with properly, we could have disenfranchised humans resorting to drugs and crime.

So even if you do not appreciate first rate scholarship, this book should be read so that you understand with the problems we are currently dealing with, and so that you will understand how to handle the future so that it becomes a virtual paradise rather than a virtual hell.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

A Book to Be Read with Caution

September 23, 2015

And that book is, A Whole New Mind:  Why Right-Brainers Will Rule the Future by Daniel H. Pink.  First of all, one should be suspicious of any book making such an outlandish claim, but perhaps outlandish claims sell books.  I’ve heard that this book is being used in an introductory psychology class.  I find this to be especially disturbing.  I think Introductory Psychology is a very important class.  I wrote the Correspondence Course, Introductory Psychology, for the University of Utah before I left and continued teaching it for several years.  Using Pink’s book in an Introductory Psychology Class would seriously handicap students taking more advanced courses in psychology, and would not provide foundational information about Psychology to be a good citizen and to live a healthy, productive life.

First of all, here is a very coarse description of the two hemispheres of the brain.  The left hemisphere processes language, is logical, and is a serial processor.  The right hemisphere is intuitive, wholistic, and engages in parallel processing.  This is a crass oversimplification, and the functions of the two hemispheres can be reversed in certain individuals.

Pink argues that past successes have been due to left hemisphere processing, that is responsible for logical thinking which is germane to scientific, engineering, and business success.  However, his claim is that computers can now do those tasks better.  He also notes that many computer tasks are being outsourced to countries whose labor costs are much lower.  But humans are better at tasks that require empathy and the interaction with other humans.  This last statement is true.  Pink and others claim that there will be sufficient demand tor these tasks that there should be no fear of being replaced by computers.  Therefore right-brainers will rule the future.

The claim that empathic skills will be in  sufficient demand such that right brainers will always be employed is a common theme.  The next post will review another book The Second Machine Age:  Work Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies  by Erik Brunjolfsson & Andrew McAfee of the MIT Sloan School of Management, will also argue that there is a definite need for the empathic skills at which humans excel.  However, they also make a strong case that there will be a significant unemployment problem and discuss ways of dealing with it.

Throughout history humans have used both hemispheres using the different hemispheres as appropriate.  Intellectuals apparently make heavy use of their left hemispheres, and artists heavy use of their right hemispheres.  The goal should be to use our Whole Mind, that is both hemispheres, to best advantage.  Computers provide support, we call this transitive memory in the lingo of the health memory blog.  Nevertheless, the ultimate processing, making decisions, needs to be done by humans using both hemispheres.  The left hemisphere has an especially important role to play in the the control of emotions, which is important to the development of empathy.

Nevertheless, there is some virtue to Pink’s book.  He includes many exercises that focus on developing skills in which the right hemisphere dominates.  This is commendable.  Developing right brain skills is a worthy goal, always remembering that the whole brain needs to be used, and one hemisphere should not be used to the of the other.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Cell Phone Distraction

September 21, 2015

I was surprised to read an article by Krystal D’Costa titled “We’ve Modified Our Behavior So We Can Walk and Talk”  in the online  August 5 Scientific American  Mind and Brain.  I don’t object to the title of the article.  Undoubtedly we have modified our behavior as the result of cell and smartphone technology.  However, I do object to some conclusions in the article.  The basic conclusion she comes to is that we’ve adapted and there are no problems.  As you shall read below, there are problems.  Please let me disabuse you of her Panglossian conclusion.

There have been many, many posts on the healthy memory blog, regarding the risks of driving while either talking or texting on a cell phone.  On May 27th, an article in the Washington Post by Ashley Halsey III summarized the result of a report from the National Safety Council.  Between 2000 and 2011 more than 11,000 people were injured while walking and talking on their cell phones.  Most of these people were women younger than 40.  Nearly 80 percent of injuries were the results of falls, and 9% of those who suffered injuries simply walked into something with enough force to hurt themselves.

Although 42% of the injured were younger than 30, these injuries were not exclusively a young person’s affliction.  20% of the injuries happened to individuals 71 years or older.

The council reported that 26% of all traffic accidents were attributable to drivers’  talking on their cell phones, while 5% of drivers involved in accidents were writing or reading text messages.  Please do not conclude from these statistics that texting is safer than talking on a cell phone.  I believe that the correct conclusion is that fortunately there are many fewer people who are foolish enough to text while driving.  It should be alarming that there are drivers foolish enough to do this.

Other research by Dr. Lee Hadlington of De Montfort University in Leicester, England and reported in the Huffington Post found that frequent users of mobile technology are more likely to experience cognitive failures, such as forgetting one’s wallet, missing an appointment, or bumping into someone in the street.  This research involved 210 British mobile phone users between the ages of 18 and 65.  Their average weekly Internet use was about 25 hours.  The participants answered questions about the amount of time they spend using the internet and mobile devices, and about their behaviors related to perception, motor function, and memory.  There was a significant correlation between the amount of time an individual spends using the internet or a mobile phone and their likelihood of experiencing cognitive failures in their rail lives.  These failures included memory error, physical blunders and daydreaming while others are talking.

The statistic I wanted to find, but could not, was the number of walkers distracted by their cell phones who were hit by cars.  I know there had to be some such cases.  I have seen people walking, distracted with their cells phones, who step out into the street or cross the street neglecting to look for traffic.  I do fear hitting one of these individuals who step in front of my car before I have time enough to stop.
© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

The Importance of Testing

September 17, 2015

Complaints are being received from teachers that testing is interfering with the education of students because they have to teach to the test.  There are two points to be made here.  First of all, testing is necessary to measure whether anything is being learned.  The second point is that testing rather than interfere with learning, can enhance learning.  These points were effectively made in a Scientific American Article that can be found at
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/researchers-find-that-frequent-tests-can-boost-learning/

An example of one of these effective teaching techniques was provided in the article.  The teacher posted a multiple choice question on a smartboard screen.  The students clicked in their answers which were posted on the bottom of the smart board screen.  So the students needed to retrieve information to make their selections.  The teacher received feedback on the knowledge of the class, and was able to provide feedback for the wrong answers.  When every student provides the correct answer, the class members raise their hands and wiggle their fingers in unison, which is an exuberant gesture that they call “spirit fingers.”

There is ample evidence from research in cognitive psychology that retrieval practice increases learning.  Whenever we retrieve a memory, the memory representation changes, and its mental representation becomes stronger, more stable, and more accessible.  If material is simply reread, this retrieval practice does not occur.  Retrieval strengthens and has additional benefits noted by cognitive psychologist Jeffrey Karpicke.  He notes that as our memory is necessarily selective, the usefulness of a fact or idea—as demonstrated by how often we have reason to recall it—makes a sound basis for selection.   He said that “our minds are sensitive to the likelihood that we’ll need knowledge at a future time, and if we retrieve a piece of information now, there’s a good chance that we’ll need it again.  The process of retrieving a memory alters that memory in anticipation of demands we may encounter in the future.”

Karpicke argues that retrieving is the principal way learning happens, “Recalling information we’re already stored in memory is a more powerful learning event that storing that information in the first place.  Retrieval is ultimately the process that makes new memories stick.”  Not only does retrieval practice help students remember the specific information they retrieved, it also improves retention for related material that was not directly tested.  When we are sifting through our mind for the particular piece of information we are trying to recollect, we call up associated memories and in doing so strengthen them as well.

I remember from my college day the yellow marked sections whenever I had a previously owned text.  I made it a point to never rely upon those yellow marked sections.  It was my guess that when studying for a test, the previous user simply reread the highlighted section.  I never did that.   I always tried to recall the gist of the material, and then I checked my recall.  If just rereading highlighted sections was done, my guess is that the best result would be a C.  My goal was an A, and I often received them.

There are hundreds of studies hat have demonstrated retrieval practice is better than virtually any other method of teaching, including doing concept maps.

Research using fMRI has shown that calling up information from memory versus simply restudying it, produces higher levels of activity in particular areas of the brain. These regions are associated with the consolidation, or stabilization, of memories and with the generation of cues that makes memory readily accessible for later recall.  Research has demonstrated that the more active these regions are during an initial learning session, the more successful is recall weeks or months later.

So this testing versus learning complaint is a pseudo issue.  It is not an issue of teaching to the test.  Rather it is a matter of developing teaching plans that require students to actively recall information rather than to simply reread material that will likely be on the  test.  This is a pseudo complaint.  If done properly it is a win win issue.

However, according to the Scientific American article there is a feature of standardized tests that prevents them from being used more effectively as  occasions for learning, and that is that the questions they ask tend to be of a superficial natures, which tends to lead to superficial learning.  There is a tool called Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, created by Norman Webb, a senior scientist at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research.  This tool identifies four levels of mental rigor:
DOK1 (simple recall)
DOK2 (application of skills and concepts)
DOK3 (reasoning and inference)
DOK4 (extended planning and investigation)
Most questions on state tests were DOK1 or DOK2.

So rather than complain about testing, the complaints should be on the DOK required on the tests.  The deeper the depth of knowledge, the better the test, which leads to more effective learning.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

The Absurdity of College Costs

September 15, 2015

How did this happen?  Today graduates need to begin their lives saddled with a ridiculous amount of debt.  Parents need to dig into their retirement accounts, either delaying or forgoing retirement, to provide an education for their children.

When I did my undergraduate work at Ohio State University (OSU) college was affordable, and at that time Ohio did not have a state income tax.  Now it does, but students are finding private colleges more affordable than OSU! This is an outrage!  State universities have an obligation to provide an affordable education to its residents.  When a private college can provide a more affordable education, something is seriously wrong.

Colleges and Universities need to be questioned why costs are increasing.  Technology provides the means to reduce costs significantly.  Are the making use of this technology?  Are they using it effectively?  Also remember that colleges and universities avail themselves of cheap labor, namely adjunct faculty and graduate students, who work for ridiculously low wages.

I believe that one of the problems is that colleges and universities have burdened themselves with unnecessarily heavy overheads that contribute virtually nothing directly to education. The problem is that they are bureaucracies, and bureaucracies  grow.  It’s in their nature.  Northcotte Parkinson, famous for his law that “work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion”, is also famous for his study of how  bureaucracies   grow unnecessarily.  I’ve worked in such bureaucracies and have watched this meaningless growth.  Given modern IT, bureaucracies should decrease, but instead they increase.  It’s inherent to bureaucracies to grow themselves.

Moreover, the issue should go beyond affordability.  Higher education should be free.  The results of the GI Bill provide ample evidence for this.  Most of the post war prosperity can be attributed to the higher educational achievements who were able to use the GI bill.  Any debts incurred in providing free higher education will be wiped out by increases in productivity.   Read or reread the healthy memory blog post “Why Information Grows.”  The answer to why countries succeed, it is due to knowledge and know how.

Read or reread the healthy memory blog post “2015 Labor Day Post.”  The future should be characterized by continuing education throughout one’s lifetime.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Dan Snyder and the Washington Redskins

September 8, 2015

For people who do not know, Dan Snyder is the owner of the Washington Redskins and has been refusing to change the name to avoid ethnic and racial sensitivities.  People who object to his intractable position or who are disgruntled Washington Redskin fans should enjoy this post, as should people who are interested in successful applications of behavioral economics.

In the National Football League (NFL) in which the Washington team plays, there is an annual draft in which draft picks are made in a designated order.  The picks are ordered in each round so that the order proceeds where the team with the poorest performance picks first up to the best performing team, which picks last in each round.  Draft pick number can be traded among teams, when teams think they will benefit from the trade.  Optimal picks . can be identified using the principles of behavioral economics.  This strategy is described in Misbehaving:  The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard H. Thaler.  The following five findings from the psychology of decision-making support the hypothesis that early picks will be too expensive:
1.  People are overconfident.  They are likely to think their ability discriminate between the ability of two players is greater than it is.
2.  People make forecasts that are too extreme.  In this case, the people whose job is to assess the quality of prospective players—scouts—are too willing to say that a particular player is likely to be a superstar, when by definition superstars do not come along often.
3.  The winner’s curse.  When many bidders compete for the same object, the winner of the auction is often the bidder who most overvalues the object being sold.  The same will be true for players, especially the highly touted players picked early in the first round.  The winner’s curse says that those players will be good, but not as good as the teams picking them think.
4.  The false consensus effect.  People tend to think that other people share their preferences.  In the draft, when a team falls in love with a certain player they are just sure that every other team shares their view.  They try to jump to the head of the line before another team steals their guy.
5.  Present bias.  Team owner, coaches, and general managers all want to win now.

Thaler and his colleague Cade, performed  behavioral analytics, which are discussed in “Misbehaving:  The Making of Behavioral Economics,” that yielded two simple pieces of advice to teams.  First, trade down.  Trade away high first-round picks for additional picks later in the draft, especially second-round picks.  Second, be a draft pick banker.  Lend picks this year for better picks next year.

When Thaler told Snyder about the project, he immediately said he was going to send “his guys” to see Thaler right away because “We want to be the best at everything.”  Thaler and Cade did so.  They had further discussions at the end of the season.

The next year Thaler and Cade watched the draft that year on television with special interest that turned into deep disappointment.  The team did the opposite of what was expected.  They moved up in the draft, and then traded away a high draft pick next year to get a lesser one this year.  When they asked their contacts what happened, they got the short answer.  “Mr. Snyder wanted to win now.” (see item 5 above).  With the exception of one season when they were eliminated in the first round of the playoffs, the performance of the Washington team has been abysmal.   There was a time when an argument could be made that “Redskin” was not a pejorative term in the DC area.  For many fathers there could be nothing better than for their son to become a “Redskin.”  However, under Snyder’s ownership, that is no longer true.  The team has become an embarrassment for Washington fans.

I have noted the incompetence of many owners of professional sports franchise that makes me wonder, “How on earth did they manage to become wealthy?”

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

2015 Labor Day Post

September 4, 2015

Every Labor Day I go back to my boyhood and remember what future was predicted then for us to be enjoying today.  This was the fifties and at that time it was very unusual for mothers to work outside the home.  The basic prediction was that advances in technology would result in significant leisure time for everyone.   Back then no one dreamed of anything like a personal computer, the internet, iPADs, or wifi.  In other words, technology went far beyond what was imagined.  So I ask again, what I’ve asked in every healthy memory blog post for Labor Day, “Why Are We Working So Hard?”  Today both marriage partners are working.  The predicted increase in leisure time has not materialized.  And we in the US work more hours than those in most advanced countries.  Often this announcement is made with pride, when it should be uttered in shame.

Some of the answers to the question, “why are we working so hard,” can be found in the three immediately preceding healthymemory blog posts.  “The Wellbeing of Nations:  Meaning, Motive, and Measurement” explained why the primary metric for measuring economies, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is seriously flawed.  This metric fails to capture many factors that make for well-being and happiness.  Moreover, it requires that economies continue to grown and expand.  Eventually the capacity for growth of the GDP will be limited and the resources for continuing this growth will be depleted.  The blog post also explained that this is an extremely difficult topic and the work in this area is still in its early stages.  Nevertheless, it has begun, so let us hope it will continue.

The healthymemory blog post “Behavioral Economics”  reviewed how classical economics is based on the model of a rational human.  There is ample evidence that we humans are not rational.  Behavioral economics is devoted to identifying behaviors that lead to desirable outcomes.  Again, there is much work to do, but it least it has started.

The  blog post “Why Information Grows”  presents a novel view of what makes economies successful.  The answer is knowledge and know how.  Again, these ideas are very new, but they offer the potential to guide us in the right direction.

Labor Day is a holiday, but  unfortunately it signals the end of summer and the traditional time for vacations and recreation.  I would suggest that Memorial Day, a holiday for the somber remembrance for those who have died fighting for our country, be switched with Labor Day.  Then Labor Day would signal the beginning of vacation and recreation time.

Nevertheless, as Labor Day is a holiday, let us engage in a fantasy so we can enjoy the holiday.  First of all, there would be a heavy investment in education, which would be free at all levels.  Moreover, education would continue throughout our lives.  This provides both for personal growth and facilitates the advancement of new technologies.  There would be ample free time.  Medical care would be guaranteed and free so people would not need to work for medical coverage.  People could drop out from time to time so that they could simply enjoy leisure time.  They could take classes in anything that
caught their fancy and found to be enjoyable.   Retirement, per se, would become obsolete as people would continue to learn and grow throughout their senior years

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Why Information Grows

September 1, 2015

“Why Information Grows” is the first part of a title than continues “The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies” is a new and highly creative book by Cesar Hidalgo, a statistical physicist at the MIT Media Lab.  Readers of the healthy memory blog should be aware of the problems of mainstream economics.  First of all, the assumption of rational man is wrong, and that problem is being gradually addressed by behavioral economics.  Then there is the problem of the inadequacy of the primary dependent variable used in economics, Gross Domestic Product (GDP).  Contemporary economics has also had difficulty  explaining how economies grow.   Dr. Hidalgo addresses this shortcoming in a remarkably creative manner.

The special sauce that Hidalgo offers is knowledge and knowhow, and knowledge and knowhow is defined in terms of physical order.  Hidalgo regards nature as a big computer that has been growing information for billions of years.  The physical incarnation is nature as we know it.  We humans further this growth via the crystallization of knowledge.  This crystallization  of knowledge is defined by physical order.  This physical order can be found in research papers and plans designed to take us to the moon.  The arrangement of atoms, their physical order, their crystallization of knowledge can be defined in the rockets, modules, and other materials developed to take human to the moon to return successfully.

Personbytes refer to the amount of information that can be contained in an individual human.  This information is constrained.  It can be aggregated at higher levels into firmbytes, which are also constrained, but much less so.  The success of countries or economies are the direct product of crystalized knowledge and knowhow.

These ideas are quite new, they are in an infant state, if you will,and they hold much promise not only for economics, but also for us humans and how successfully we are able to interact with the world.

At this point some readers might be thinking, this is all very good, but what has this to do with a healthy memory?   I summarize books for a variety of reasons.  I think they contain information that is useful.  Economics is a discipline that affects us directly and has some notable shortcomings.  So these reviews include information that I think would be good for readers to know.

However, they are also relevant to a healthy memory.    Keeping a memory healthy requires continual learning to build new memory circuits in the brain.  In this respect, this particular book not only builds new memory circuits, but also establishes new relationships among the sciences.  This book builds new relationships between physics and economics, so it is especially valuable.  Of course, there is significant benefit to be gained by not only regarding this blog, but also by reading the book.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.