The fourth cryptomind discussed in “The Mind Club” is the Enemy. The most conspicuous example of the enemy is in warfare when there is an explicit enemy to be fought. Enemies are usually demonized. However, there are more subtle examples of the enemy. When cheap labor was needed during the colonization of North American, Africans were regarded as being sub-human. Consequently, they could be captured sold into slavery and treated as farm animals. Frequently, they were treated worse than farm animals. Then, there were the native americans who already occupied North America. They were the unfortunate occupants of the land these Europeans wanted. Consequently, they were dehumanized and regarded as the enemy.
How could the holocaust happen? Through an extensive and elaborate propaganda program conducted by the Nazis, Jews were dehumanized. There were side benefits of this dehumanization. Jewish property was confiscated and the Jews provided a cheap source of labor. However, Nazi ideology required that Jews be exterminated. This extermination was so important to the Nazis that when they were losing the war, they devoted sources needed to fund the war effort to the extermination of the Jews instead.
Actually it is easier to understand what the Nazis did that what the remainder of the free world did not, with a few notable exceptions, do. And that was to offer refuge to the refugees. While Jews were not explicitly the enemy, they still had a lower status that allowed them to be ignored.
The response to the holocaust was “Never Again.” But it has occurred “again” and several times already, and it will continue to occur.
Research has indicated that it is remarkably easy to create enemy groups. The authors state that three elements are required to form these enemy groups. The first is the opportunity for kindness or cruelth, situations in which people can interact either nicely or nastily. The second element is reciprocity. Reciprocity is when you are friendly to people who treat you nicely and unfriendly to people who treat you nastily. Healthy memory feels compelled to state that while these elements might be required in research designed to study artificially created enemy groups, this certainly was not true of the Jews in Germany. Utilitarian need is more likely the requirement in the real world. The third element is transitivity. Transitivity means sharing your group’s opinion of others—liking the group’s friends and disliking the group’s enemies.
Research has indicated how easy it is to form us versus them groups. To do this, social psychologists have created the “minimal-groups paradigm.” In one experiment participants were shown hundreds of dots and asked them to guess the number. The researchers knew the exact average of the number of dots and divided the participants into two groups, “Underestimators” and Overestimators.” People in each group were kind to those in their group, but cruel to people in the other group.
A creative third-grade teacher, Mrs. Jane Elliot, in rural Iowa as a result of the assassination of the Rev Martin Luther King, Jr., wanted her students to learn firsthand about the pernicious effects of prejudice. She made a new racial distinction proclaiming that children with brown eyes were inferior to children with blue eyes. In no time the blue-eye children grew smug and powerful and treated their brown-eye classmates with condescension and cruelty, seeing them as less than human.
The social psychologist Muzafer Sherif conducted the classic “Robbers Cave” experiment at a boys’ summer camp. The camp had two cluster of cabins dividd by a small forest, and boys randomly assigned to one side, “the Eagles,” or the other, “the Rattlers.” In short order the boys had bonded strongly with their own groups and held nothing but contempt toward the other group., in spite of them all being fundamentally the same. The authors note that in real life boys no older than those in this Robber’s Cave Study are told that they are a Crip( blue) or a Blood (red) and are expected to show unwavering allegiance to their brothers and ruthless cruelty to their rivals. In these gangs handguns are used to claim and hold drug-distribution territory.
Another group that is technically not the enemy, but which is regarded as being unworthy are the homeless. These people are regarded as psychotic, substance abusers, or bums, and not worthy of our consideration. This provides a means of avoiding the problem rather than feeling empathy towards these people and working to solve the problem.
Can anything be done about this problem? One approach is to get people in the different groups to work together to solve a problem During wartime in the military it has been found that different racial groups need to depend upon each other in combat. Consequently, they bond and there are few interracial problems. There was a very good documentary on this topic during the Viet Nam war titled “same mud, same blood.”
Racial problems are more likely in support units who are more likely fighting boredom than the enemy.
One group doing yeoman’s work to address this issue is the Southern Poverty Law Centers https://www.splcenter.org/what-we-do .In addition to programs on teaching tolerance they have worked with individual members of hate groups to remove the source of their hate.
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