This post is motivated by an article by Lisa Grossman in the Features section of June 18 20016 Issue of the New Scientist. The topic is the concern among whites that in just a few decades most people in the US won’t be white. The article reports research done by Jennifer Richeson. She is addressing the increasingly prevalent media narrative in the US the because a rapidly changing racial demographics, the country will become a so-called majority-minority country. If all members of self-identified racial ethnic groups—Asian Americans, black Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, multi-ethnic individuals, and so on, somewhere around 2045 those groups will add up to 50.1% of the population, with white people in the “minority.” Jennifer Richeson wanted to know how people are responding to this information.
So she asked white Americans to read about the changing demographics that point to this so-called majority-minority distinction. Control groups of white American read information about other aspects of demography. Afterwards the first group expressed more negative attitudes to a variety of racial groups, black, Latinos, Asian American. She asked questions like “How much do you like members of these groups and found it on measures of unconscious racial attitudes tool. It is a robust effect. Moreover, when whites read about these racial shifts, they were also more likely to endorse politically conservative policies that were not race related such as drilling for fossil fuel in the Alaska wildlife refuge.
It is important to understand that this response is not unique to whites. The same type of experiment was done with black Americans, but this time it was tailored to highlight growth and the threat of the Latino population. The same basic result was obtained including a general shift to conservatism. So Richeson argues that the issue is not racism, but other the threat of losing status. This is psychologically threatening and a way to cope with this is by becoming more conservative.
In follow on research Richeson did studies reminding whites that even if they were in a numerical minority they would still have greater wealth, better jobs, and better education and so are still going to be doing well in the status hierarchy, regardless of changes in the US racial distribution. This reduced white people’s perceived threat about what’s going to happen to them, and then they show no difference in their expression of racial bias or conservatism than participants in the control condition.
At this point Healthy Memory (HM) will ask the question as to why this issue was raised in the first place. Is this some conspiracy by the conservative press to elicit racial disharmony and enhance conservative attitudes? HM does not think so. HM thinks that the motivation of the press is to increase readers, and contentious issues such as this increases readers.
Currently in the US there is the phenomenon of Donald Trump. Trump has earned many millions of dollars in free press coverage because of his outlandish statements and insults. Moreover, many of his statement are contradictory, yet he thrives.
There is an explanation for this phenomenon, but first a quick overview of Kahneman’s Two Process Theory is needed. The fast processing which we normally do and allows us to respond so quickly is called System 1. System 1 is named Intuition. System 1 is very fast, employs parallel processing, and appears to be automatic and effortless. It is so fast that operations are executed, for the most part, outside conscious awareness. Emotions and feelings are also part of System 1. System 2 is named Reasoning. It is controlled processing that is slow, serial, and effortful. It is also flexible. This is what we commonly think of as conscious thought. One of the roles of System 2 is to monitor System 1 for processing errors, but System 2 is slow and System 1 is fast, so errors to slip through. (To learn more enter “Kahneman” into the healthy memory blog search block).
Our default mode is System 1. System 2 requires thinking and mental effort. Trump supporters do not do much System 2 processing, thinking, so little, if any, of what Trump says is evaluated. His statements resonate with their biases so they become strong supporters.
Unfortunately for democracies to thrive, System 2 processing, thinking, is required. The upcoming election will indicate whether there is sufficient System 2 processing for our democracy to survive and thrive.
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