For a long time, HM thought that the study of psychology should be put off until college. However, he has recently come to the opinion that certain parts of human cognition should be taught as soon as possible. This would provide some insight for the students in to how they think and learn. The importance of focus and attention, and the fact that bias is inherent to our thinking.
Students likely think of their memory as something they need to use to past tests. What they need to understand is that their memory is a machine for time travel. They use it not just to remember stuff for tests, but as a means of searching what they have learned and experience in the past, to decide what to do in the future. In other words, it goes far beyond remembering stuff for tests.
Information gets into our memories from our senses. What we perceive is limited by what we can sense. Color, for example, does not exist in the external world. Color is created by what our eyes can sense. People who have different kinds of color blindness are limited by the absence of specific color sensing sensors (cones).
Our brains process these inputs and create internal models of what exists in the world. Optical illusions provide good examples of what we think we see may not be accurate. There are also cognitive illusions when what we think does not correspond to reality. Essentially learning is a process of building better and better cognitive models. As the result of learning we are able to refine and correct our cognitive models. But this requires thinking and thinking requires attention. Usually when we do not remember, it is due to our not paying attention in the first place. So, paying attention in class is important for effective learning. Students would learn not only how we make decisions and solve problems, but also better ways to make decisions and solve problems.
They would also learn about Daniel Kahneman’s Two Process View of Cognition. System 1 is called is called intuition and is very fast. This speed is the product of learning and is bought at the price of biases used in System 1 Processing. System 2 is called reasoning and is what we commonly think of as thinking. One of the roles of System 2 is to monitor System 1 for errors
Our default bias is to believe new information. This is called the confirmation bias. If we did not have this as a default bias, we would probably never have survived as a species. But it does create problems. We tend to look for information that confirms what we believe. Unfortunately, this carries the risk of failing to correct our biases. Science is structured to look for information to disconfirm current theories or beliefs.
One of the biggest problems is correcting disinformation. This is why the big lie is so successful. If something is heard frequently enough, the tendency is to believe it, regardless of whether it is true or not.
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