The title of this post is identical to title of a short piece written by Kevin LeLand and and published in the 24 September 2016 issue of the “New Scientist.” The cover of the issue notes that the theory of life needs an update. The changes in the theory of evolution have been monumental. In HM’s humble opinion, they are comparable to the changes between Newton and Einstein in physics. Kevin Leland has provided a precise summary.
Gone is the radical notion of the selfish gene, which argues the goal of genes is to propagate themselves, and we are merely vehicles for that propagation. Gone also is the nature vs. nurture issue. Genes interact with the world. They provide inputs, but perhaps for some exceptionally rare occasions, they are not deterministic.
Natural selection is not solely in charge as the way that an organism develops can influence the direction and rate of its own evolution and its fit to the environment.
Inheritance goes beyond genes and includes epigenetic, ecological, behavioral, and cultural inheritance. Similar to, but different from, Lamarkian transmission, acquired characteristics can be passed to offspring and play diverse roles in evolution.
Phenotypic variation is not random. Individuals develop in response to local conditions such that novel features they possess are typically well suited to their environment.
Evolution is much more rapid than previously viewed. Developmental processes allow individuals to respond to environmental changes and mutations with coordinate changes in suites of traits. The new view is organism-centered, with broader conceptions of evolutionary processes. Individuals adjust to their environment as they develop and modify selection processes. Additional phenomena explain macroevolutionary changes by increasing evolvability, the ability to generate adaptive diversity. They include plasticity and niche construction.
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