Thinking Fast and Slow

This is the fifth post in a new series of posts on Healthy Memory. “Thinking Fast and Slow” is a best selling book by Nobel Prize winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman. Kahneman makes an important distinction between two types of mental processing. Not surprisingly he names them System 1 and System 2. To illustrate the distinction between these two types of processing, he asks the following question:

Together a bat and a ball cost $1.10.
How much more does the bat cost than the ball?

The most common answer to this question, the one made by majority of students from prestigious colleges is $1.00

However, if this were the case then the bat and ball together would cost $1.15.
So 5 cents more is the correct answer for the ball. The bat costs $1.05.

System 1 is our most common mode of processing. It is fast and efficient. Unfortunately, this speed is paid for by a cost. Although the failure to think critically was trivial in the present example, it can be disastrous in more important decisions. Cognitive neuroscience, which conducts brain imaging studies, has a term for mental activity which is the typical norm, called accordingly default mode processing. This mode can be identified in brain images. The default network of interacting brain regions is known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain. These regions are negatively correlated with attention networks in the brain.

Normal conversation and well performed tasks are System 1 activities. Thinking and learning are System 2 processes and they involve cognitive effort. Most of the time spent on social media involves System 1 processing primarily.

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