Posts Tagged ‘CAVE’

Content Analysis for Verbal Explanations (CAVE)

November 20, 2019

This is the sixth post based on a book by Martin Seligman, Ph.D., titled Learned Optimism The subtitle is How to Change Your Mind and Your Life. The problem was how to characterize individual players in sports and their teams with respect to the optimism dimension. To do so they developed the CAVE technique. CAVE is an acronym for content analysis of verbatim explanations. This can be done by reading the sports pages. Causal statements made by a player can be evaluated on a 1 to 7 scale with respect to its permanent, pervasive, and personal qualities. This enables getting a player’s explanatory style without using a questionnaire. They found that such a profile roughly matches what would have happened if the questionnaire had been taken by the player. By doing this they created a technique that is a virtual time machine.

This virtual time machine provided an extremely powerful tool. This enabled the study of optimism of people who either could not (e.g., deceased individuals) or would not take the ASQ as long as there were verbatim quotes from these individuals. They could “CAVE” an enormous range of material for explanatory style: press conferences, diaries, therapy transcripts, letters from home, and so forth.

The CAVE method provided evidence that we learn our explanatory style from our mothers. In 1970 grandmothers were interviewed. Their children, now mothers themselves were also interviewed. They CAVEd these interviews and found that there was a marked resemblance between the level of pessimism of the mothers and their daughters. This is one of the ways we learn optimism, by listening to our mothers explain the everyday events that happen to them.

This time machine provided the first evidence that the reality of the crises we go through as children shapes our optimism: Girls who went through economic crises that were resolved came to look at bad events as temporary and changeable. But children who experienced the privations of the Great Depression and remained poor afterward came to look at bad events as fixed and immutable. Seligman writes, “So our major childhood crises may give us a pattern, like a cookie cutter, with which, for the rest of or lives, we produce explanations of new crises.

British professor George Brown spent ten years walking around the most poverty-stricken areas of South London, interviewing housewives at great length. He interviewed more than four hundred, looking for the key to the prevention of depression. Over 20% of the housewives were depressed, half of them psychotically. He was determined to find out what separated those women who got severely depressed in that trying environment from those who were apparently invulnerable.

He isolated three protective factors. If any one of them were present, depression would not occur, even in the face of severe loss and privation. The first protective factor was an intimate relationship with a spouse or lover. Such women could fight depression off well. The second was a job outside the home. The third was not having three or more children under the age of fourteen at home to take care of.
In addition to invulnerability factors, Brown isolated two major risk factors for depression: recent loss (husband dying, or emigrating) and, more important, death of their own mothers before the women had reached their teens.

Seligman concludes with three kinds of influences on a child’s explanatory style. “First, the form of the everyday causal analyses he hears from you—especially if you are his mother: If your are optimistic, he will be too. Second, the form of criticism he hears when he fails: If they are permanent and pervasive, his view of himself will turn toward pessimism. Third, the reality of his early losses and traumas: If they remit, he will develop the theory that bad events can be changed and conquered. But if they are, in fact, permanent and pervasive, the seeds of hopelessness have been deeply planted.”

The CAVE methodology has proved informative for a wide range of research issues. There is a chapter titled “Politics, Religion, and Culture: A New Psychohistory.” The interested reader is encouraged to read Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Brain and Your Life.” These blog posts just capture a few major ideas from this book. In the book you can find questionnaires for assessing the optimism of you and your children.

31st Annual Meeting of the Association for Psychological Science

June 2, 2019

HM has attended several of these meetings. In addition to the 31st, HM attended the very first meeting and made a poster presentation, Computer Aids for Vision and Employment (CAVE). A series of posts will do what will be, at best, a cursory summary of presentations that HM attended.

The first presentation he attended was by Daniel T. Gilbert titled Prisoners of Now. Our ability to imagine the future—what will happen and how we will feel about it- is susceptible of error. The most potent source of error is our tendency to imagine the future through the lens of the present, which leads us to misunderstand ourselves and others in the future. So when we arrive at this imagined point in the future our experiences will have changed us so that what we experience in the future is different than expected. His claim is based on data. When the future objective is to achieve a certain goal, such as gaining entrance to a prestigious college, winning tenure at a prestigious university, or having a prestigious and important job, the failure to achieve these objectives is nowhere near as disastrous as anticipated. The future turns out to be different, it may also be more beneficent than imagined, so a fulfilling career, an enjoyable marriage are achieved. And it is also possible that achieving one’s desired goals are not as fulfilling as imagined. The work can be demanding and not as rewarding as imagined or the marriage might have ended in an unpleasant divorce. So it is always good to work for future goals, but it is not wise to fear the failure to achieve these goals. Although it is not guaranteed, one should feel that it is fairly likely to achieve at least a modicum of happiness. Of course, this assumes that alcohol and controlled substances are not abused, and that the law is not broken.

There was another session titled Increasing STEM Thinking in the Real World organized by Caroline Marano and Roberta M. Golinkoff. As readers of the healthy memory blog should know STEM stands for science, technology, engineering, and math, and that these disciplines are regarded as needed for both the country and the economy. It should also be appreciated that psychology is regarded as a STEM discipline. This symposium examined how STEM can be developed in everyday environments, exploring how parents and educators can bolster learning for all children.

So there was a presentation on spatial thinking and how to enhance it as spatial thinking is an important component of STEM. There was another presentation on how preschoolers and parents can explore math broadly. There was a presentation on what was called the Urban Thinkscape, which designed parks to encourage thinking in the STEM area. And a presentation on a Children’s Museum called Parkopolis which raises STEM thinking.

These presentations were encouraging, but HM is also concerned about STEM thinking in adults. All responsible adults and citizens need to develop their understanding of STEM disciplines, and an especially important one is statistical thinking. They need to apply this thinking to the health of their families and to use as guidance in selecting political leaders.

A session titled Emerging Concepts of Effort: Resources, Resourced Perceptions, and Subjective Experience was organized by Nicolas Silvestri. Mental effort or energy, if you will, is required for many processes. One presentation was titled fatigue influence on inhibitory control. When we’re tired we have less energy for inhibitory control. So when we’re tired we need to be especially careful to say or do something that we might later regret. Moreover, individuals have different beliefs regarding willpower. Some regard willpower as being virtually unlimited. Others regard willpower as a resource that must be carefully guarded. In reality willpower is limited. That’s why the healthy memory blog has recommended taking this into consideration when making New Year’s resolutions. Making too many resolutions or extremely difficult resolutions can increase, if not guarantee, failure. That is why the healthy memory blog recommends making no more than 2 resolutions, one of which can be regarded as likely to achieve, and the other, which can be regarded as stretch, that might be achieved.