Posts Tagged ‘diabetes’

Eat (and Sleep) Your Way to Willpower

April 14, 2017

This post is based on the book “Willpower:  Rediscovering the Greatest Strength” by Roy Baumeister and John Tierney.  Glucose depletion can turn the most charming companion into a monster.  The advice of eating a good breakfast applies all day long, particularly when you’re  physically or mentally stressed.  If you have a test, an important meeting, or a vital project, don’t take it on without glucose.  Don’t thrash out serious problems with your partner just before dinner.

Don’t skimp on calories when you’re trying to deal with more serious problems than being overweight.  If you’re trying to quit smoking, don’t try quitting while your also on a diet.  You might even consider adding some calories, because part of what seems to be a craving for a cigarette may actually be a craving for food once you’re no longer suppressing your appetite with nicotine.  When sugar tablets were given to smokers trying to quite, sometimes the extra glucose has led to higher rates of success, particularly when the sugar tablets were combined with other therapies such as the nicotine patch.

When you eat, go for the slow burn,  The body converts just about all sorts of food into glucose, but at different rates.  Foods that are converted quickly are said to have a high glycemic index.  Included here are starchy carbohydrates like white bread, potatoes, white rice, and plenty of offerings on snack racks and fast-food counters.   Eating them produces boom-and-bust cycles, leaving you short on glucose and self-control, and too often unable to resist the body’s craving for quick hits of starch and sugar from doughnuts and candy.

To maintain steady self-control, we’re  better off eating foods with a low glycemic index.  Included here are most vegetables, nuts (like peanuts and cashews), many raw fruits (like apples, blueberries, and pears), fish, meat, olive oil, and other “good” fats.

When you’re sick, save your glucose for your immune system.  Before driving to work when you’re sick consider this:  Driving a car with a bad cold has been found to be even more dangerous than driving when mildly intoxicated.  That’s because your immune system  is using so much of your glucose to fight the cold that there’s not enough left for the brain.

Sleep when your are tired.  We adults routinely shortchange ourselves on sleep with the result of less self control.  By resting we reduce the body’s demands for glucose, and we also improve its overall ability to make use of the glucose in the bloodstream.  Sleep deprivation has been shown to impair the processing of glucose, which produces immediate consequences for self-control, and, over the long term, a higher risk of diabetes.


Ischemic Stroke and Cognitive Function

February 25, 2015

This blog post is largely based on an article by Marina Fernandez-Andujar and eleven others titled, “Remote Thalamic MIcrostructural  Abnormalities Related to Cognitive Function in Ischemic-Stroke Patients,” published in Neuropsychology (2014), 984-996. Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is a brief period of lack of blood flow to an area of the brain.  This impairs the function of brain cells, so a person suffering from TIA develops symptoms of brain function impairment, such as
Weakness of the face and/or arm, and/or leg muscles on one side of the body
Numbness of face and/or arm and/or leg on one side of the body
Inability to understand spoken language
Inability to speak
Unexplained dizziness or vertigo
Loss of vision through one eye
Double vision or blurry vision
These symptoms of a mini stroke/TIA disappear completely within 24 hours.  Nevertheless, it is important to visit an emergency room as soon as possible.  Even if the event occurred a few days ago, medical attention should still be sought.

The thalamus is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. Some of its functions are the relaying of sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. The two parts of the thalamus surround the third ventricle. It is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon.
The study compared 17 patients who had suffered right hemisphere ischemic stroke three months previously with 17 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education.

In the interest of brevity, technical terms will not be defined and certain details will be omitted. However, this article reports the results of sophisticated brain imaging and contains a wealth of information for the technical specialist.  Stroke patients showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values and higher mean diffusivity (MD) values in specific areas of the right thalamus compared with  controls.  In patients, decreased FA values were associated with lower verbal fluency performance in the right thalamus, and the left thalamus after adjusting for diabetes mellitus.  Increased MD values were associated with lower verbal fluency performance in the right hemisphere after adjusting for diabetes mellitus. The FA and MD values were not related to any cognitive function in the control participants.

Alzheimer’s research has been largely focused on neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in spite of autopsies indicating the presence of these abnormalities, but not cognitive or behavioral of Alzheimer’s symptoms during the lifetimes of these individuals.  It is important to be aware that dementia can also result from ischemic strokes or Type II diabetes mellitus.