The title of this post is identical to the title of an important article by physicist Nicolas Gisin the May 20, 2016 edition of the “New Scientist.” Descartes stated, “I THINK, therefore I am. Most humans would agree with this statement. After all, are we active agents free to influence our thoughts and decisions, or are we just passive laundry machines through which thoughts happen to pass?.
Gisin notes that the ability to ask the question seems to require the first interpretation, yet modern science—in particular—modern physics—almost unanimously plumps for the second. According to modern physics in a deterministic universe, where one thing leads inevitably to the next, any conception we have of free will is an illusion.
Gist does not buy this. He thinks that we are missing something fundamental to our formulation of science. “And the solution of the problem of free will is linked to another glaring deficiency of today’s physics—its insistence that time as we know it does not exist.”
Jules Lequyer, a French philosopher of the 19th century wrote, “Without free will, the certainty of scientific truths would become illusory.” We need free will to decide which arguments we find convincing, and which we dismiss, which is the essence of doing science.
Gisin wrote, “What irony, then, that the search for scientific truth seemed to kill free will. That started with Newton and his universal law of gravitation. Derived from observations of the solar system bodies, it speaks of a cosmos that operates like clockwork and can be described by deterministic theories. Everything that happens today was set in motion yesterday, and indeed was determined in the initial conditions of the big bang; nothing truly new ever happens.
Gisin further writes, “Things became even more inscrutable with Einstein’s relativity, which showed that there was no unique definition of simultaneous events. To square that with a deterministic universe, a picture known as the “block universe” emerged. Here we dispense not just with free will, but also with a flowing time. Past, present, and future are al frozen in one big icy block. The present in which we are free to think and be—in which exercise free will—is just as illusory as free will itself.”
And, believe it or not, philosophers of science bend over backwards to explain why we think we have free will. They argue that we are programmed to always make choices that correspond to a predetermined necessary future. So the feeling that our choices are free is illusory.
This presumed reasoning is obviously nonsense and it is depressing to realize that so many intelligent people buy it.
Gisin is a quantum physicist and he argues that real numbers are not real at all. He notes that most real numbers are never ending strings of digits that can contain an infinite amount of information. He notes that they could encode the answers to all possible questions that can be formulated in any human language, but that a finite volume of space-time can only hold a finite amount of information. So the position of a particle, or the value of any filed or quantum state in a fine volume, cannot be a real number. Real numbers are non-physical monsters..
Gisin notes that free will chimes with the dominant “Copenhagen” interpretation of quantum theory, made popular by Werner Heisenberg. Making a measurement “collapses” the wave function describing a quantum system into one of a number of pre-ordained states. Quantum theory is a random, non-deterministic theory, but it creates a determined world—and seems in no way incompatible with a common sense conception of free will. So, God can play dice with the universe and win. Quantum theory is frequently used in practical scientific and engineering problems.
Gisin also frees up the flow of time. He notes that there is a time before a non-necessary event happens and there is a time after it happens, and these times are different. This happening of a non-necessary event, like the result of a quantum measurement, is a true creation that can’t be captured by a mere evolution parameter. He calls the sort of time this requires “creative time.”
Gisin concludes by stating that “creative time’ is extraordinarily poorly understood by today’s science, but that could change with future physics, such as quantum theories of gravity that might replace Einstein’s theories that spawned the block universe. Time passes, and free will exists—any other way, science makes no sense.
Gisin is not the only physicist who advocates free will Roger Penrose (who healtymemory (HM) believes was on the dissertation committee of Stephen Hawking) is a distinguished physicist, mathematician, and philosopher, who extols consciousness and the role of quantum effects in consciousness and free will. Penrose’s book, “The Emperor’s New Mind goes into considerable detail on these topics. He formulates the notion of Correct Quantum Gravity (CQG). Although this book was written for the general public parts involve heavy sledding. Nevertheless it is good to know that an extremely intelligent and knowledgeable scholar is on the same or similar train of thought. Unfortunately, Roger is much further down these tracks than HM is. Should healthy memory ever manage to make it further down these tracks, he will get back to you.
Outside of physics there have been many HM blog posts on consciousness and free will. Even though we all have intimate experience with our own consciousness, there are still many who contend that this is epiphenomenal. HM argues that consciousness is an emergent phenomenon with adaptive value. It is essential to effective interactions with the environment and for choosing courses of action. Neuroscientists have stated that all mammals, some invertebrates such as the octopus, and many birds are conscious and there consciousness has adaptive value.
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