Posts Tagged ‘Gross National Happiness’

Growing Pains for a New Democracy

October 26, 2018

That new democracy is Bhutan and it’s wedged between India and China. Bhutan is famed for its stunning scenery and devotion to the principle of Gross National Happiness. There have been many previous Healthymemory blog posts on Gross National Happiness.

Bhutan had a rather unique path to democracy. Instead of voters rising up to fight for the right to elect their leaders, the country’s revered king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, initiated the process of drafting a democratic constitution. This constitution has some atypical features. Buddhist monks, nuns and other clergy are not allowed to vote on the logic that they should remain outside politics. No campaigning is allowed after 6 p.m. Candidates found “defaming” their opponents or straying into certain sensitive topics—such as Bhutan’s oppressively close relationship with India—face fines or reprimands.

Sounds wonderful. So what could possibly go wrong? Dorji Penjore, of the Center for Bhutan, noted that the last survey of the nation in 2015, showed a decrease in two of the nine indicators used to measure Gross National Happiness—psychological well-being and community vitality.

Two reasons have been provided for these problems. Both of which should be familiar to those of us in the US. One problem is social media. Apparently, the election rules were violated over social media and became pretty ugly. The second was party politics.

These two problems are plaguing us in the US. Much has been written about social media, and efforts are being attempted to try to reign in that problem. The second problem, which is not mentioned as much as it should be, is party politics.

According to the US Constitution each of the three branches of government, executive, judicial, and legislative are to provide checks on each other. Unfortunately, all three branches are under the control of the same party. Rather than checking the executive branch, the legislative branch is not only protecting an ill-behaved executive branch, but it is also attacking standing government institutions such as the Department of Justice.

The US Constitution is regarded by many as being sacrosanct. Indeed, one of the qualifying beliefs many have for Supreme Court Justices is that they be Originalists, meaning that they interpret the Constitution as it was understood when it was written. Previous healthy memory blog posts have pointed out that the Constitution as written is both misogynistic and racist. Attempts have been made to eliminate or mitigate these problems, but the fact that party politics could corrupt the vigilance each branch of government was to have on the other was not anticipated.

HM remembers reading that there were founding fathers who feared party politics. HM’s memory informs him that two of these were George Washington and John Adams. It is hard to see how politics would operate without political parties. But there appears to be a need to either eliminate or to mitigate the effectiveness of political parties, or to modify the US Constitution to protect its vulnerability from political parties.

Part of this post was base on the article by Joanna Slatter, “In tiny Bhutan, known for its pursuit of happiness, democracy brings discontent” in the 19 October 2018 issue of the Washington Post.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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It Should be Life Quality Not Household Income

December 17, 2017

Being at the forefront of the baby boomers, HM becomes extremely agitated when he reads of how bad the more recent generations have it. The argument usually consists of adjustments of median income, and that this is not keeping up with previous generations. Monetary income is used to quantify life quality. This is extremely shortsighted and wrong.

Do any of these new generations wish they could have been in the good old days of the baby boomers? If they do, then they are fools. Personal computers were not available to say nothing of the internet and mobile computing. Would anyone in these new generations be willing to part with their smartphones? Medical care, automobiles, and other technologies have markedly improved.

Many baby boomers had to register for the draft and fight in the Viet Nam war. They had the privilege of possibly having their names added to the wall on the Mall. Of course, if one was wealthy, it was quite possible to find a physician who would provide the basis for a medical deferment.

Unfortunately, dollars are equated with happiness and life satisfaction. The Gross Domestic Product is the most common means of assessing life satisfaction, if not happiness. A healthy economy requires the GDP to grow. We are placed on a treadmill to continue working to buy more material goods. This is the rat race that is only occasionally mentioned.

There have been several healthy memory blog posts on the expectations HM was given when he was in elementary school. He learned that advances in technology would allow a large increase in leisure time. At that time women with children rarely worked. Now everybody is working longer hours. Why? There is a fear of technology taking away jobs. Why? Why can’t technology be used to increase leisure time and to make life more enjoyable?

A previous post, Flourishing, described what Aristotle and other wise people, both ancient and contemporary, wrote about what constitutes the good life. Rather than hedonism, the goals should be eudaemonia and ikigai, having a purpose in life other than having a job to earn money to engage in a futile effort to achieve happiness. Follow the wisdom of the Dalai Lama and go to http://joinaforce4good.org/learn.

There are metrics for Gross National Happiness that are more relevant to happiness than are gross domestic products. (Enter “Gross National Happiness” into the search block of the healthymemory blog to find relevant posts.)

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Labor Day Message 2014

August 31, 2014

 

Regular readers of the healthymemory blog might receognize some striking similarities between this message and the 2013 message. Unfortunately, not much has changed. When I was in elementary school the predictions were that due to technology we would have much more leisure time (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leisure) in the future. I’ll remind you that at this time it was highly unusual for married mothers to be working. In my view, some of the technological achievements, particularly in computing and in broadband, have vastly exceeded these predictions. So I ask you, why are we working so hard? We’re working much harder than when I was in elementary school. And it’s getting worse. Americans now work for eight and a half hours more a week than they did in 1979.

I would further ask, exactly what are we producing? Suppose only those who provided the essentials for living and for safety went to work. What percentage of the working population would that be? Make your own guess, but mine would be less than 10%, so what is going on here?. Currently we are working hard to achieve an unemployment rate at or below 5%. But is this a realistically achievable unemployment rate? Remember that the previous two occasions when the employment rate was at or below 5%, the economic prosperity was bogus. There was the dot com bogus, when people expected to become rich via the internet. Then there was the bogus finance/real estate boom where riches were created via bogus and unsubstantiated financial instruments. So why, absent some other fictitious basis for a boom, do we expect to get back to 5% unemployment

To examine the question of why we are working so hard, I present the following study tht can be found in Kahneman’s Thinking Fast and Slow.It found that being poor is bad. Of course, this finding is not surprising. The surprising finding is that a household income of $75,000 represented a satiation level beyond which experienced well being no longer increased. And this was in high cost living areas. In other areas the number would be lower. So, it is clear that we are working more for no real benefit. Why?

The world’s environmental and resource issues also need to be considered here. As the undeveloped world develops, the demands on resources, the pollution of the environment, and the rate of global warming will increase as the developing world hops on the same exhausting treadmill that the developed world has been on.

I think the problem is that classical economics has outlived its usefulness and has become destructive. Economics needs to undergo a paradigm shift. Classical economics is based on the rationale theory of man. Socials scientists have debunked this theory quite well as have behavioral economists. Computing the Gross National Product (GNP) in terms of hard dollars might seem to b objective, but reminds one of the drunk who is looking for his car keys under the streetlamp rather than in the dimly illuminated part of the parking where he dropped them. Economists need to consider subjective, relevant measures as happiness and life satisfaction, but these measures are given only glancing consideration. Perhaps this is due to the extreme economics supermeme that plagues us and has been discussed in previous healthymemory blog posts.

Once appropriate measures and appropriate philosophies regarding self fulfillment and self actualization are adopted we can get off the treadmill and enjoy the fruits of technology and our lives.

You also might visit or revisit the Healthymemory Blog Post “Gross National Happiness.” There is also an entry on this topic on wikipedia.org.

Nobel Prize Recognizes Behavioral Economics

October 27, 2013

Two of the three economists awarded the Nobel Prize for 2013 are behavioral economists. Historically and, unfortunately, currently, economic theory is largely dominated by the rational model of man. In 1978, the psychologist Herbert Simon, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his research showing the human beings do not, and often cannot, evaluate all available information before making a decision. He found that people satisfice, that is, use only enough information to think they need to make a decision (see the healthymemory blog post, “More on the Dangers of Information Overload”). In 2002, the psychologist Daniel Kahneman shared the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his work with Amos Tversky showing the relevance of psychological research on human judgment and decision making under uncertainty to economics. Readers of the healthymemory blog should be familiar with Kahneman’s work on the Two System View of Cognition.

Of the three economists awarded the Nobel Prize in 2013, Eugene Fama is a traditional economist who employs the rational model of human beings. He has argued for efficient markets in which all relevant information is immediately incorporated into an asset’s price. Robert Shiller‘s work has criticized the efficient market hypothesis by showing that stock prices behave in a manner not predicted by the efficient market hypothesis. Lars Peter Hansen, who is sympathetic to behavioral economics, built on Shiller’s work and developed statistical methods to test exactly what drives stock price volatility. The financial crises of several years ago were the result of irrational human behavior with respect to the value of real estate and the financial instruments underlying real estate. We humans are not rational, but rather have limited information processing capabilities and are also driven by emotions. These psychological factors are what, at bottom, drives economies. It is interesting to note that Shiller is married to a psychologist.

I am compelled to note that Daniel Kahneman has been honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In addition, the White House has invited psychologists to help transform policy.1

The influence of behavioral economics is only slowly being felt, but there are questions as to why with all this automation we are working so hard (enter “why are we working so hard” into the healthymemory search block to see relevant posts on this question). Perhaps we shall eventually move from measures such as Gross National Production (GNP) as measures of economic success, to more relevant measures such as Gross National Happiness (GNH) (enter “Gross National Happiness” into the healthymemory search block to find relevant healthymemory blog posts on this topic).

1(2013). A Seat at the Table, Observer, September 2013, p.21.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2013. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Something to Think About on Labor Day

September 1, 2013

When I was in elementary school the predictions were that due to technology we would have much more leisure time in the future. I’ll remind you that at this time it was highly unusual for married mothers to be working. In my view some of the technological achievements, particularly in computing and in broadband, have vastly exceeded these predictions. So I ask you, why are we working so hard? We’re working much harder than when I was in elementary school. And it’s getting worse. Americans now work for eight-and-a-half hours more a week than they did in 1979.

I would ask further what, exactly, are we producing? Suppose only those who provided the essentials for living and for safety went to work? What percentage of the working population would that be? Make your own guess, but mine would be less than 10%. So what is going on here?

Currently we are working hard to achieve an unemployment rate at or below 5%. We are finding that exceedingly hard to achieve. But is this a realistically achievable unemployment rate? Remember that the previous two occasions when the employment rate was at or below 5%, the economic prosperity was bogus. There was the dot com bogus, when people expected to become rich via the internet, only the path to these riches remained unspecified. Then there was the bogus finance/real estate boom where riches were created via bogus and unsubstantiated financial instruments. So why, absent some other fictitious basis for a boom, do we expect to get back to 5% unemployment?

To examine the question of why we are working so hard, I present the results of the following study.1 It found that being poor, is bad. Of course, this finding is not surprising. The surprising finding is that a household income of $75,000.00 represented a satiation level beyond which experienced well being no longer increased. And this was in high cost living areas. In other areas the number would be lower. And this was for experienced well being. Emotional well being might have carried additional therapeutic costs. So it is clear that we are working more for no real benefit. Why?

Part of the reason might be that the creation of technology sometimes results in more work. This phenomenon was analyzed for housework in a book by Ruth Schwartz Cohen titled More Work for Mother. Household appliances such as washing machines and vacuum cleaner produced higher cleaning standards but not less work. The seasonal work of spring cleaning that had been done by the entire family was replaced by year-round vacuum cleaning and dusting. Clothes that had been word for several days or until they were sweaty and soiled went into the hamper on a daily basis for washing.

There is also the Jevons paradox named after the economist William Stanley Jevons. He noticed in 1865 that the demand for coal was not decreasing with technological innovation and better energy efficiency. Instead , factory and mine operators had access to new, more efficient coal-fired engines increased production or installed engines in parts of their facilities where previously the cost of doing so would have been prohibitive. Thus, increased efficiency resulted in an increased use of technology, which led to an overall increase in energy consumption. Sometimes labor-saving technologies lead people to choose to do things that consume more labor, as well as more time and energy

Another reason might be the that the economic theorists who currently formulate policy are classical economists using the rational theory of man. Behavioral economists have debunked this theory. Moreover, computing GNP in terms of hard dollars might smack of objectivity, but reminds one of the drunk who is looking for his car keys under the streetlamp rather than in the dimly illuminated part of the parking lot where he dropped his keys. Economic measures should include such subjective, but relevant, measures as happiness and life satisfaction. But they do not. Perhaps this is due in part to the extreme economics supermeme that plagues us and has been discussed in previous healthymemory blog posts.

Perhaps with the appropriate measures and appropriate philosophies regarding self fulfillment and self actualization we can get off the treadmill and enjoy the fruits of technology and our lives.

You also might visit or revisit the Healthymemory Blog post “Gross National Happiness (GNH).

1Kahneman, D., & Angus, D. (2010). High Income Improves the Evaluation of Life but Not Emotional Well Being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 16489-93

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2013. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Gross National Happiness (GNH)

July 7, 2012

The preceding Healthymemory Blog Post criticized the Gross National Product as a measure of well-being. There are alternatives, for example Gross National Happiness (GNH)1. The term “gross national happiness” was coined in 1972 by the Kind of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck. And he did more that coin a term; he opened a center and formulated a program for developing the concept and measuring it. He engaged scholars throughout the world and began having international conferences. He was committed to build an economy that would serve Bhutana’s culture based on Buddhist spiritual values. Readers of the Healthymemory Blog should be familiar with how Buddhist meditation techniques have found to be important for emotional and memory health (try entering “Buddhism” in the search box. Also try entering “Meditation”).

The proposal is to treat happiness as a socioeconomic development metric. A GNH value would be an index function of the total average per capita of the following measures:

  1. Economic Wellness: This would involve direct surveys of people and statistical measurement of economic metrics such as consumer debt, average income to consumer price index ratio and income distribution.

  2. Environmental Wellness: This would involve direct surveys of people and statistical measurement of environmental metrics such as pollution, noise, and traffic.

  3. Physical Wellness: The proposal would employ statistical measurement of physical health metrics such as severe illness. I think this index should also include direct surveys of people.

  4. Mental Wellness: This would involve direct surveys of people and statistical measurements of mental health metrics such as the usage of antidepressants and the rise of decline of psychotherapy patients.

  5. Workplace Wellness: This involves direct surveys of individuals and the statistical measurement of labor services such as jobless claims, job change, workplace complaints, and lawsuits.

  6. Social Wellness: This involves direct surveys of individuals and statistical of social metrics such as discrimination, safety, divorce rates, complaints of domestic conflicts and family lawsuits, public lawsuits, and crime rates.

  7. Political Wellness: This involves the direct survey of individuals and the statistical measurement of political metrics such as the quality of local democracy, individual freedom, and foreign conflicts.

    Understand that this would be a measure of the GNH of a country. How the metric is defined might well vary from country to country as different factors might be included or weighted differently. One’s country GNH might not reflect a single individual’s happiness very well. You might live on a block with very wealthy home. You might live, zoning restriction permitting, in a mobile home on the same block. Your respective incomes might vary by more than an order of magnitude, yet your family might be much happier than the residents in the wealthy home. That home might be experiencing conflicts and be on the verge of a divorce.

    It should be generally understood, but apparently it isn’t, that the value of money is not linear. In other words, the value of a dollar to someone earning $10,000 is much more than to a person earning $100,000. So a graduated income tax makes sense psychologically as well as economically. There is only so much that an individual, or that individual’s family (even an extended one) can enjoy or use. Unfortunately, there are many who view success by the money and physical goods they possess. So they will fight to avoid taxes and to keep their taxes low even though it is not feasible that this additional income will benefit them. I applaud the two leading capitalists in the United States, Warren Buffet and Bill Gates, who realize this and are behaving accordingly. I’m reminded of the saying by a Texan that money is like manure; it’s no good unless it’s spread around.

    Another measure for either replacing or accommodating the shortcomings of the GDP is the Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI)2. The IWI includes three kinds of assets: manufactured or physical capital (machinery, buildings, infrastructure, and so forth; human capital (the populations’ education and skills): and natural capital (including land, fossils, fossil fuels, and minerals). The IWI contains important information not in the GDP. A county can appear to be doing quite well in terms of its GDP, but exhausting its natural resources at an alarming rate. A country like South Korea with its impressive human capital can do quite well without physical resources.

    So the shortcomings of the GDP are realized. Unfortunately it is still relied upon too heavily. We must move, and move quickly, to more relevant measures.

1Go to the Wikipedia for an informative alternative and many useful links.

2The Economist, June 30th 2012, p.78. And the “Inclusive Wealth Report 2012”, www.ihdp.unu.edu/article/iwr

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2012. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.