Posts Tagged ‘Miller’

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

March 23, 2019

This is the seventh post in series of post based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” The MBTI is the bane of most psychologists. Once people know that you are a psychologist, it is not unlikely that they will expound on the marvels of the MBTI. Moreover, it is used in some Intelligence Agencies. According to one estimate, about 2.5 million people a year take the test. So HM never resists the opportunity to set people straight on the MBTI.

The MBTI is scored on four dichotomous dimensions:

Extraversion vs. Introversion, which focuses on what sort of activities energize a person: Extraverts draw energy from interacting with others and are dampened down when they spend a lot of time alone; the opposite is true for introverts.

Sensing versus Intuition, which focuses on what a person prefers to pay attention to: Sensing types are very concrete, preferring factual material that is predigested and handed to them instead of material that requires them to abstract and organize meaning to distill underlying principles; the opposite is true for intuitive types.

Thinking versus Feeling, which focuses on decision-making preferences: Thinking types are logical, systematic and relatively detached when making decisions; feeling types are more inclined to rely on emotional considerations and to strive for overall “harmony.”

Judging versus Perception, which focuses on preferences for how to act in the world at large: Judging types like to plan and organize; perceiving types prefer to be open to new possibilities as they arise.

On the face of it these dimensions seem reasonable, and it is clear why this test has intuitive appeal.

But

The test was not developed by psychologists, statisticians, or any type of professional. Katherine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Myer Briggs began to develop this test during WW2 as a tool to help women discover which wartime jobs would be most comfortable and appropriate for them. The test MBTI was the tool. Here are the problems:

It is not based on science; instead, it largely grew out of Jung’s theory of psychoanalysis, which he formulated on the basis of intuition and clinical observations.

Some of the assumptions that underlie the test appear to be contradicted by scientific findings. For example, the MBTI is scored as if “intuition” is distinct from “feeling”—but much evidence now indicates that emotion often underlies hunches.

When items are analyzed so that the underlying factors can be discovered, the results do not correspond to the four dimensions posited by the theory.

When scores are analyzed, they do not cluster around the middle of the dimensions.

in spite of the fact that the test developers stressed that their test is designed to assess preference and not abilities, researchers have examined whether scores predict performance—and they do not consistently do so. Moreover, when they do predict performance, this may be a consequence of the correlation between the MBTI scores and other measures.

Numerous researchers have found that the test has poor reliability. Test takers often get a different score when they take the test a second time.

In addition to the MBTI the authors of “Top Brain, Bottom Brain” also debunk a view of personality that focuses on the anatomical distinctions between the left and right halves of the brain. Although there are differences, under normal circumstance the two halves do interact, and way too much has be made of this theory.

Social Prosthetic Systems

March 22, 2019

This is the sixth post in series of posts based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” When we don’t have the ability or skill to do something we need to do, we should turn to someone (or something) else for help. Sometimes there is a reluctance to ask for help. The authors recommendation is to overcome a reluctance to ask for help. Then the question is to whom, exactly, should we reach out to. The answers can be found in the principles of what the authors call social prosthetic systems, a name coined by drawing an analogy to physical prosthetic systems. Should we lose a leg, we would rely on a prosthesis to walk. The prosthesis makes up for shortcomings allowing one either to accomplish a task or to better accomplish a task or achieve an objective. Whenever we use a calculator we are using a cognitive prosthesis.

The authors note that the Internet has evolved into what can be called the mother of all cognitive prosthesis—the place many of us turn, typically via Google and other search engines to find facts, directions, images, translations, calendars, and more. We store personal data and cherished memories in the cloud, from which they can easily be retrieved. James Gleick, author of “The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood”, calls the many billions of pages that constitute the Internet “the global prosthetic brain.”

The authors note that this statement is not quite correct. The Internet is a vast memory, but less useful as a tool of reasoning—especially when emotion is involved. Despite its informational power, the Internet is of limited use when we need wise advice to help us navigate a thorny situation. The main cognitive prosthesis we rely on for such help is not software or machines, but other people: individuals who can help us extend our intelligence and discover and regulate our emotions. In the lingo of the healthy memory blog, these social prosthetic systems are part of Transactive Memory. There is an entire category of posts labeled Transactive Memory. Transactive Memory is memory that cannot be accessed directly from our brains. Paper, technology, and our fellow humans constitute Transactive Memory. So these Social Prosthetic Systems are part of Transactive Memory.

As the senior author defined it in his first paper on the idea, social prosthetic systems are “human relationships that extend one’s emotional or cognitive capacities. In such systems, other people serve as prosthetic devices, filling in shortcomings in an individual’s cognitive or emotional abilities.” The authors note that with the possible exception of a committed hermit, every person belongs to one or more of these systems.

The authors present an example of our being in an emotionally fraught situation—on the verge of breaking up with a spouse or partner. “Your partner complains that you work too much, and you feel trapped between the requirements of your job and your desire to maintain the relationship. You would probably not want to seek the counsel of someone who typically operates in Stimulator or Adaptor mode. A person operating in Stimulator Mode might simply offer a knee-jerk reaction, perhaps giving you the first idea that springs to mind (“Maybe you just need to explain why your job is so important to you”) and a person operating in Adaptor Mode might try to minimize the issue (“Life has its ups and downs—if you wait awhile this will probably get better”). So that would leave you with the choice of counsel from someone who typically operates in Mover Move or Perceiver Mode. And that choice would depend in part on your goals for the outcome. If you wanted strategic help on how to handle the situation, the theory suggests the person in Mover Mode would be the most appropriate (perhaps suggesting ways to achieve more work/life balance by avoiding work on weekends). But if you wanted reflection on how you were actually feeling, and on what you wanted and needed, the person who typically operates in Perceiver Mode might be more helpful (listening as you try to sort out why you feel so torn). Putting this together, you might want to seek counsel from two separate people to garner the benefits of both kinds of input. Thus informed, you could more wisely make decisions.

Personal Examples of the Adaptor Mode

March 21, 2019

This is the fifth post in series of post based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” Elizabeth Taylor was a consummate actress who was highly successful as an actress. But when it came to personal relationships, she behaved as if she regularly operated in the Adaptor Mode.

When Taylor was eighteen, she married Conrad Hilton, Jr. He had a reputation as an obnoxious and abusive drunk. He was given to extreme mood shifts and was a notorious womanizer. Taylor married Hilton in 1950 and in January 1951, less than one year later, he became Taylor’s ex-husband number one.

After dating several men, in 1952 Taylor married Michael Wilding, an English actor who had been married before and was subject to dramatic shifts of mood. They had two children, but she quickly grew dissatisfied with him and began seeing other men, one of whom was Michael Todd, who had been married twice and whose volatile temper was legendary. He was killed in a plane crash before they had a chance to marry. Eddie Fisher was her next husband whom she married in 1959. On the set of the movie Cleopatra, released in 1963, Taylor became involved with Richard Burton. Burton was an alcoholic, philanderer, and abuser—the worst qualities of Taylor’s previous husbands. They married in 1964. By 1973, Taylor had had enough. She separated from Burton and they divorced the next year. In October 1975 they got back together and walked down the aisle again. In 1976 Taylor left Burton for the last time. She had two more marriages. both of which ended in divorce, and what the authors say was a degree of happiness—though not necessarily late-life wisdom.
One can regard Taylor as an excessive adaptor.

Thus far all personal examples of the modes are of famous people. In the absence of further examples of adaptors the authors created a character named Nick: a man in his late twenties they designed to illustrate what it means to think and act in the Adaptor Mode.

On the way to work,when he becomes stuck in traffic he relaxes and listens to his iPod. He doesn’t think to call his foreman to let him know that he’s stuck in traffic. His bottom brain does not lead him to see the broader implications of his current situation (its effects on other people such as his foreman), nor does he take advantage of the time to use his top brain to make plans about things that really matter to him. The authors write, “Instead the immediate situation is driving his agenda, as we expect is typical of people who are operating in Adaptor Mode. His top brain is not formulating complex or detailed plans that would guide his thought or behavior; instead, he waits for external guidance about what to do next.”

At work his foreman gives him a special assignment, he wants him to take a new apprentice under his wing. Nick knows what this will entail babysitting. There are plenty of other electricians with more experience who could handle the job. The authors note that the foreman has not asked Nick; he’s ordered him, and although Nick might win the battle if he pushed back hard (the foreman values him as one of the best workers), he decides it’s not worth it. He reasons that the order is not totally unreasonable, good relations with the boss count for a lot.

Nick is agreeable and usually does what the other person wants rather than what he would like to do. His childhood dream was to become a firefighter. He could enroll in an EMT course, join a volunteer fire company, or apply for the fire academy. This would be difficult, but he could probably manage while still keeping his day job and remaining a good dad.

But pursuing his old dream required detailed, long-range planning. Right now, it seems too much to undertake. Overall, life is pretty good as it is. Why rock the boat?

This section ends as follows: “Being in Adaptor Mode has some clear advantages. When you relax, you really relax—you don’t fret about the future or obsess about the past. Moreover, because you very likely are easy to get along with in this mode, other people often enjoy your company. The downside, according to our theory, is that you can be buffeted by the world around you—and that can be detrimental. As psychologists showed long ago, animals that have some control over their environment experience less stress (and fewer ulcers) than animals that are always on the receiving end, having no such control.”

If you have not tested yourself to see if you are classified in the Adapter Mode, go to the the first post in this series “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.”

Personal Examples of Stimulator Mode

March 20, 2019

This is the fourth post in the series of posts based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” During the Vietnam War Abbie Hoffman was the Cofounder of the Youth International Party (Yippies). Hoffman organized marches, sit-ins, and demonstrations and by October 1967 was deeply involved in planning two days of actions at the Lincoln Memorial and outside the Pentagon. Preparations included obtaining a permit, which set a limit of 32 hours for the demonstrations. By the time that deadline arrived, organizers had achieved their primary objective, national coverage of their cause. Many began to leave, but Hoffman and others stayed on into a second morning—and were arrested. The authors note that this was pointless as the protest had already succeeded, and counterproductive for Hoffman, whose time would have been better spent planning the next action, not trying to free himself from the criminal justice system. The authors write, “With his long and intensive involvement in protests, Hoffman had repeatedly experienced the potential consequences—but he behaved like someone who did not engage in bottom-brain thinking as deeply as he should have.”

In 1968 Hoffman played a major role in planning demonstrations using his top brain. In the weeks leading up to the Democratic national convention Hoffman oversaw production of tens of thousands of leaflets, posters, and buttons urging antiwar protestors to join him in Chicago for the convention. He helped coordinate news coverage. He reached out to speakers and musicians and he presided over weekly meetings.

His work paid off: Thousands were on hand that August 28, when the Democrats nominated Hubert Humphrey as their presidential candidate. With the world’s journalists present, Hoffman had his biggest platform yet and a chance to make a powerful statement. But he did not think of the consequences for writing the F-word in lipstick on his forehead when he dressed that morning. But the consequence was one that many would predict. Police arrested him for thirteen hours. Hoffman missed the demonstration that would become one of the iconic protests of the 1960s, and he stood trial as one of the Chicago Seven, which was a long court ordeal that effectively removed him from the leadership of the movement.

When he emerged from hiding as a fugitive he wrote, “It’s mind boggling, but being a fugitive I’ve seen the way normal people live and it’s made me realize just how wrong I was in the past. I’ve grown up too. You know how it is when you’re young and not in control. I’d like to go back to school and learn how to be a credit to the community…Age takes its toll but it teaches wisdom.” The authors conclude, “In his later years, Hoffman showed signs of having developed the ability to think in Perceiver Mode at least some of the time.”

The authors write, “What better contemporary example could we use to illustrate the characteristics of operating in the Stimulator mode than Sarah Palin, onetime vice presidential candidate, former governor of Alaska, and continuing presence in American culture?” Palin moves through life, formulating and carrying out plans. But it appears that, like Hoffman, she often does not adequately register the consequences and adjust her plans accordingly. As a vice-presidential candidate she presented a folksy, budget-cutting fiscal conservative and demanded instant attention. Voters who were wary of politicians who waste taxpayer dollars applauded this governor who had pared Alaskan state construction spending, sold the the gubernatorial debt, and refused to be reimbursed for her hotel stays.

However during the campaign, she and her family accepted $150,00 worth of designer outfits and accessories from Neiman Marcus, Saks Fifth Avenue, and Bloomingdale’s. She indulged in an expensive makeup consultation—a spending spree that stood in stark contrast to her image as a Kmart-shopping mom.

In March 2010 she posted on her Facebook page pictures of gun crosshairs that “targeted” Democratic members of Congress for defeat. Rep. Gabrielle Giffords was one on whom she had place gun crosshairs. On 8 January Rep. Giffords was tragically shot and seriously injured. She is still recovering from her injuries. Palin is one of the favorite targets for the satire of the Capitol Steps.

If you have not tested yourself to see if you are classified in the Stimulator Mode, go to the the first post in this series “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.”

Personal Examples of Perceiver Mode

March 19, 2019

This is the third post in series of posts based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” The chapter begins, “The nineteenth century poet Emily Dickinson illustrates well the characteristics of operating in Perceiver Mode—the mode of thinking and behaving in which people deeply engage in observing and analyzing their surroundings and circumstances (using the bottom brain) but tend not implement complex or detailed plans (using the top brain). She lived day to day with no career ambitions, sometime entertaining friends, but mostly reading and writing poems that she made little effort to have published.

She was a devoted gardener, and she loved her time with flowers, bees, and butterflies, from which she drew insights that informed her poetry. She wrote poems about the brain. This is poem number 632, she did not title her works.

The Brain—is wider than the Sky—
For—put them side by side—
The one the other will contain
With ease—and You—beside—

The Brain is deeper than the sea—
For—hold them—Blue to Blue—
The one the other will absorb—
As Sponges—Buckets—do—

Science was not Dickinson’s abiding passion. She found her greatest themes observing nature, in the changes of season and day, in the cycles of life and death. This would characterize someone for whom the Perceiver Mode was the typical way of thinking and behaving. Of the hundreds of poems Dickinson wrote about the natural world, the authors found the following poem one that nicely captures both her talent and her wisdom, presumably gleaned through deep utilization of her bottom brain.

Nay—Nature is heaven—
Nature is what we hear—
The Bobolink—the Seas—
Thunder—the Cricket—
Nature is what we know—
Yet have no art to say—
So impotent Our Wisdom is—
To her simplicity.

The authors write, “If the Theory of Cognitive Modes is correct, then people who typically think and behave in Perceiver Mode will not ordinarily seek publicity. Still, some have achieved prominence without aggressively seeking it. History has shown that spiritual and religious figures who have helped make sense of human existence can attract large followings. Although they do not engage in self-serving campaigns, their ideas compel others.

The Dalai Lama fits that description (There are thirty-one healthy memory posts on the Dalai Lama).

The authors write, “One could argue that a person who typically thinks in Perceiver Mode is better suited to bringing a deeper perspective to human existence than is usually offered by someone who generally thinks in one of the other three modes.”

The Dalai Lama writes in “Compassion and the Individual”:
“It is possible to divide every kind of happiness and suffering into two main categories: mental and physical. Of the two, it is the mind that exerts the greatest influence on most of us. Unless we are either gravely ill or deprived of basic necessities, our physical condition plays a secondary role in life. If the body is content, we virtually ignore it, The mind, however, registers every event, no matter how small. Hence we should devote most of out serious efforts to bringing about mental peace.

From my own limited experience, I have found that the greatest degree of inner tranquility comes from the development of love and compassion. The more we care for the happiness of others, the greater our own sense of well-being becomes.”

If you have not tested yourself to see if you are classified in the Perceiver Mode, go to the the first post in this series “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.”

Personal Examples of the Mover Mode

March 18, 2019

This is the second post in series of posts based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.”

On June 6, 2001 Michael Bloomberg announced the he would run for Mayor of New York city. He had no political pedigree. He had built Bloomberg LP, a media and financial giant, and was a billionaire. He had a comfortable life, prestige, and was well situated. Why would he run for mayor with all the attendant problems that go with public office? It appears that he was disposed in this context to think in Mover Mode. Given his business success, this certainly was nothing new for him. Remember that the mover mode is the mode of thinking and behaving in which people formulate and implement plans (using the top brain) and note the consequences of doing so (using the bottom brain), and adjust their plans accordingly. The authors write, “From his modest childhood in a suburb off Boston, Bloomberg consistently demonstrated such behavior: achieving Eagle Scout status as a young teen; excelling as an undergraduate at Johns Hopkins University; performing well as a student at Harvard Business School; and standing out during his early years in business, as a trader at Solomon Brothers.”

The authors continue, “We can conjecture that Bloomberg learned not just from his successes but also from his setbacks. Caught in the brutal cross fire of a leadership war inside Solomon Brothers, he was demoted after thirteen years to the tech support department—a humiliating fall from grace. But Bloomberg did not withdraw into self-pity (people in Mover Mode typically are not easily discouraged). Instead, he dedicated himself to a new challenge, the then frontier of financial computing. It was that experience that led him in 1981, to found Bloomberg LP—the company that revolutionized the delivery of financial information.

His next challenge was to consider running for the Presidency of the United States.

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, provide additional examples of people operating in the mover mode. Almost everyone knows that they developed and flew the first powered controlled heavier than air flight. What is less known is that these two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, achieved their breakthrough without benefit of a high school education or formal training of any kind.

Their father stimulated their fascination with flight when he gave them a toy helicopter, based on a design by a French aeronautical pioneer. It was constructed of cork, bamboo, and paper and was powered by a twisted rubber band. They played with it until it broke, but were unfazed when it did. They began building their own helicopters, improving each successive model with the knowledge gleaned from the previous ones. Although they were still in grammar school, the boys already exhibited behaviors characteristic of Mover Mode thinking. They embraced challenges and were not deterred by failure. Failures were not ends but valuable lessons in the progression to success.
After stints as self-taught printers, newspapermen, and repairers and builders of bicycles, they took on the challenge of powered flight. They believed, along with the German inventor Otto Lilienthal that the monumental hurdle was control, and not power. So their early work focused on gliders, specifically how to steer and bank them.

So the Wright brothers initially flew unmanned gliders. They continued their work with gliders. When 1902 drew to a close, the were ready to add a motor. The authors write, “You can see a pattern here: The brothers consistently devised and implemented plans (top brain), adjusting those plans on perceived outcomes (bottom brain)—these are typical Mover Mode behaviors.

Orville wrote, “The first flight lasted only about 12 seconds, but it was nevertheless the first in the history of the world in which a machine carrying a man had raised itself by it own power into the air in full flight, had sailed forward with a reduction of speed, and had finally landed at a point as high as that from which it had started” This was the humble beginning of aviation. We can all see how far we have gone.

If you have not tested yourself to see if you are classified in the Mover Mode, go to the immediately preceding post “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.”