Posts Tagged ‘MOOCS’

Income Insecurity

April 21, 2019

The title of this post is identical to the first part of a title in iGEN: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids are Growing up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood, by Jean M. Twenge, Ph.D. The remainder of the title of Chapter 7 is “Working to Earn—but Not to Shop.”

Dr. Twenge writes, “iGen’ers are practical, forward looking, and safe, a far cry from the ‘You can be anything’ and ‘Follow your dreams” Millenials.” iGen’ers make up the majority of traditional-age college graduates and will soon dominate the pool of entry-level talent. Dr. Twenge writes, “Given the key differences between iGen’ers and Millenials, the strategies that recruiters have been using to recruit and retain young employees may no longer work. The same is true for marketing to iGen’ers, with a decidedly different psychological profile selling to iGen’ers varies considerably from selling to Millenials. Businesses and managers need to take note: a new generation is arriving on your doorstep, and its members might not be what you expect.”

Interesting work and friends, the things that many Boomers and GenX’ers like the most about their jobs are not as important iGen’ers. They just want a job. An iGen’er wrote, “We should all be less interested in jobs that are interesting or encourage creativity because they don’t pay anything. That’s why you see so many people my age 100k in debt working at a Starbucks.”

iGen’ers also think that work should not crowd out the rest of life. There is a declining belief that work will be central to their lives. They do not want to have jobs that “take over my life.” Still 55% of 2015 high school seniors agree that they are willing to work overtime, up from 22% in 2004. And fewer iGen’ers said they would want to stop working if they had enough money. But iGen’ers have continued the Millenials ‘trend toward saying they don’t want to work hard. So, iGen’ers know that they may have to work overtime, but they believe that many of the jobs they’d want would require too much effort. They seem to be saying, it’s just too hard to succeed today.

The iGen’ers feel pressure to get a college degree. When Dr. Twenge asked her students at San Diego State University how their lives differed from their parent’s, most mentioned the necessity of a college degree. Many of their parents were immigrants who had worked at low-level jobs, but still had been able to buy houses and provide for their families. Her students tell her that they have to get a college education to get the same things that their parents got with a high school diploma or less. One iGen’er said, “My generation is stressed beyond belief because of college. When you graduate from high school, you are pushed to then go into a college, get your masters then have this awesome job. My father’s generation was different. He was born in the 70’s and despite never going to college he has a great paying job. That is not a reality for my generation. You are not even guaranteed a job after going to college. And once we graduate we are in deb to up to our ears.”

The wages of Americans with just a high school education declined by 13% between 1990 and 2013, making a college education more crucial for staying middle class. At the same time, college has become more expensive. Due to cutbacks in state funds for education and other factors college tuition has skyrocketed, forcing many students to take out loans. The average student graduating in 2016 carried $37,173 in debt upon graduation, up from $22, 575 in 2005 and $9,727 in 1993.

The escalation, this unbelievable increase in college costs present a clearly understandable obstacle to iGen’ers, but there are alternatives that are not mentioned.
These alternative are discussed in the healthy memory blog post “Mindshift Resources’. Universities and colleges offer Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCS). These offer an alternative that has certain advantages over typical coursework. Often these courses are free. Usually to get college credits payments are required. However, autodidacts do not necessarily want or desire college credits. There is a website nopaymba.com by Laura Pickard who writes, “I started the No-Pay MBA website as a way of documenting my studies, keeping myself accountable, and providing a resource for other aspiring business students. The resources on this site are for anyone seeking a world-class business education using the free and low-cost tools of the internet.  I hope you find them useful!” She explains how she got an business education equivalent to an MBA for less than1/100th the cost of a traditional MBA. Even without a degree HM would be impressed by a student who had acquired course knowledge in this manner. Autodidacts are devoted to their area of expertise. The have a true interest, they are probably not doing this as an instrumental act just to get a job.

Many young men apparently have a strong aversion to work. So what are they doing? They are playing video games. 25% played video games three or more hours a day, and 10% played at least six hours a day. Video games take up an increasing amount of young men’s time, about eleven hours a week on average in 2015. So the question is are young men playing video games because they are not working or are they not working because they are playing video games? The latter might well be the case. Why work when you can live at home and play video games. Technological innovations have made leisure time more enjoyable. For lower skilled workers, with low market wages, it is now more attractive to take leisure.

Dr. Twenge writes, “Some iGen’ers might be staying away from work because they are convinced that what they do matters little in a rigged system. One iGen-er writes “If we want to have a successful life, we have to go to college, but college is really expensive and we need to either take out loans, that is just going to make our future more complicated and stressful so we try to get a job, but most well paying jobs you want need experience or an educational background, so we are often stuck in a minimum wage position, with part time hours because our employers don’t want to give us benefits, which means we still have to take out loans.”

Dr. Twenge writes that even with their doubts about themselves and their prospects, iGen’ers are still fairly confident about their eventual standard of living.

60% of 2015 high school seniors expected to earn more than their parents. Somehow, most iGen’ers think they will make it. HM was also please to learn that iGen’ers were less impressed by consumer goods, and were less prone to buy consumer goods to impress their neighbors.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2019. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Higher Education, Status, and Costs

February 23, 2018

This blog post is motivated by an article by Jay Mathews titled “Franchising the Ivy League: How About Yale at Yreka,” in the Metro Section of the 8 January 2018 issue of the Washington Post. It cited a study by Alan Krueger, former chairman of the White House Council of Economic Advisers, and Mathematica Policy Research expert Stacy Berg Dale that found that students accepted by selective colleges who chose not to attend these colleges had incomes just as high 20 years later as those who did attend. Only students from low-income families did better after attending selective colleges. This is strong evidence that, unless you are from a low-income family, it is foolish to bother applying to selective colleges, and that you are insane to attend a selective college if you are assuming uncomfortable levels of debt for student loans.

Moreover, the best college to attend depends upon the particular subject matter in which you are interested. If you know your topics of interest you should apply to schools whose scholars interest you. Your hope is to attend a school where you can find an appropriate scholar with whom you can take independent study and perhaps participate in her research. Succeed, and this is the best route to a graduate programs that will further your interests.

If HM remembers correctly, Robert Frost said that attending college was just a second chance to read books you should have read in high school. Robert Frost’s statement is even more true today, given all the additional sources of knowledge that are readily available. Go the the healthy memory blog titled “Mindshift Resources” to find (MOOCS) Massively Online Open Courses. Many of these courses are free. Laura Pickard has a site, nopaymba.com, who writes, “I started the No-Pay MBA website as a way of documenting my studies, keeping myself accountable, and providing a resource for other aspiring business students. The resources on this site are for anyone seeking a world-class business education using the free and low-cost tools of the internet.  I hope you find them useful!” She explains how she got an business education equivalent to an MBA for less than1/100th the cost of a traditional MBA.

Frankly, were HM an employer he would prefer to hire an autodidact who had completed this free online MBA than someone who had paid for and completed a conventional degree. He would do this on the basis of the autodidact who had the interest and the motivation to complete the course. There are many free online courses. The cost usually comes when one wants to get credit towards a degree.

So HM encourages high school students, just as he encourages everyone else, to find their passion and to develop a growth mindset to pursue that passion.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Mindshift Resources

October 5, 2017

This post provides information on resources for mindshifts. Although this post focuses on massive online open courses (MOOCs), mindshifts can be accomplished from many sources. However, MOOCs are a new high tech means of learning. Some MOOCs are free, even from first rate universities, and some MOOCs require payment. Usually to get college credits payments are required. However, autodidacts do not necessarily want or desire college credits. There is a website nopaymba.com by Laura Pickard who writes, “I started the No-Pay MBA website as a way of documenting my studies, keeping myself accountable, and providing a resource for other aspiring business students. The resources on this site are for anyone seeking a world-class business education using the free and low-cost tools of the internet.  I hope you find them useful!” She explains how she got an business education equivalent to an MBA for less than1/100th the cost of a traditional MBA.

class-central.com lists free online courses from the best universities. She also list the best 50 MOOCs of all time. This is a good resource for learning about MOOCs.

Here are some notes on additional resources provided in Mindshift.

Coursera: This is the largest MOOC provider. It has courses on many different subjects and in many different languages. It also offers an MBA and data science master’s degree and offers “specializations”—clusters of MOOCs.

edX: Has a large number of courses on many different subjects and in in many different languages. Offers “MicroMasters”—cluster of MOOCs.

FutureLearn: Has a large number of courses on many different subjects and languages, particularly, but not exclusively from British universities. Offers “Programs”—clusters of MOOCs.

Khan Academy: Offers tutorial videos on a large number of subjects, from history to statistics. The site is multilingual and uses gasification.

Kadenze: Special focus on art and creative technology.

Canvas Network: Designed to give professors an opportunity to give their online classes a wider audience. Has a large number of courses on many different subjcts.

Open Education by Blackboard: Similar to Canvass Network.

World Science U: A platform designed to use great visuals to communicate ideas in science.

Instructables: Provides user-created and -uploaded do-it-yourself projects which are rated by other users.

You can find the author’s MOOC, “Learning How to Learn” on coursera.org.

 

 

Cultivating & Effectively Exploiting Human Capital

December 19, 2015

My favorite chapter in “Why the Net Matters” is Chapter 6, Cultivating Human Capital.  Regular readers might recognize this as one of my favorite topics.  Human Capital refers to knowledge and know-how, which is key to the success of any country.  The chapter begins by discussing the benefits of crowd sourcing.  For example, fold.it tackles the computationally difficult problem of protein folding by turning it into a game played by thousands.  CSTART.org, which stands for Collaborative Space Travel and Research Team is an open-source development to get a manned craft to the moon.  CSTART is a non-government, non-profit, collaborative space agency with the mission of “space exploration, by anyone, for anyone.

There are so many resources on the net for cultivating human capital.  There is the Wikipedia.  There is MIT’s open courseware that is open to any self-learner.  Rice University launched Connexions (cnx.org), which features 17,000 modules woven into 1,000 collections for levels from children to professionals, in fields ranging from electrical engineering to psychology.  Also there is Khan Academy.  By no means is this an exhaustive list.

Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) are being made available through many universities.  Although courses are usually free, there is the matter of getting credit for successfully completed courses.  These issues are being worked out.  However, sometimes it is better to audit a course first, before taking it for credit.  I had a friend who did this for his Calculus courses.  He would first audit course, and then take it for credit.  He earned straight As in these courses.

Of course, education is appreciated most by those who are growth minded.  In the lingo of the health memory blog, this is transactive memory, which is knowledge available via technology and fellow humans.

It can be argued that we are much better at cultivating human capital than at exploiting human capital.  Although crowd sourcing is a good example of effectively exploiting human capital, I spent my career with the privilege of working with brilliant individuals, yet this talent was not effectively exploited and frequently ignored.  Bureaucracies in both government and in private companies stifle this human capital.  Management does not appreciate, and sometimes cannot appreciate, this potential, so it remains unexploited.  Bureaucracies excel at growing themselves rather than understanding and making use of effective human capital.  Bureaucracies also adversely impact the cultivation of human capital.    I’ve heard the argument, and I believe this argument, that a factor bearing a significant impact on the ridiculously increased costs  of higher education is the growth of unnecessary bureaucracy.  Bureaucracies need to be studied and changed so that their goal is the cultivation and exploitation of human capital rather than the growth of the bureaucracy.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Goodbye SAT

April 8, 2015

“Goodbye SAT:  How online courses will change college admissions,” is an opinion piece by Kevin Carey in the March 19th Washington Post.  He makes a good case for the SAT either becoming absolute or a rather minor factor in college admissions decisions.  He cites research by economist Jesse Rothstein who found that, after controlling for student’s background characteristics, SAT scores predict only 2.7 percent of the variation in students’ college grades.

Through a nonprofit consortium called edX, Harvard, MIT, the University of Texas, the University of California at Berkeley, Columbia, Dartmouth, Cornell, Caltech, the Sorbonne and dozens of other elite universities offer complete online versions of their classes, free, to anyone with an Internet connection.  Topics include computer science, matrix algebra, poetry and Chinese History from Harvard; engineering, mathematics and jazz appreciation from UT;principles of economics and data analysis from Caltech.  edX is  not alone, there are other online education platforms such as Coursera, that offer thousands of additional courses from elite universities, free.  These can be the same courses offered in college courses, to include lectures, homework assignments, midterms and final exams.  Although the courses are free, the degrees are not, but more about that later.

Prospective students can build an impressive transcript before they formally enter college  This also provides a good opportunity to learn how much they like and how well they fit into different subjects.  Success in these Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) are much more likely to predict success in college classes than SAT scores, because they are courses in college.

Here are some outstanding examples cited in Carey’s article.  In 2012 when he was 15, living in Bator, Mongolia taking online course from MIT was one of only 340 students out of 150,000 worldwide to earn a perfect score in a rigorous online Circuits and Electronics course.  He’s currently enrolled at MIT.  Another student from the same class, Amol Bhave from Jabalpur, India, enjoyed the class so much that he created his own online follow-up course in signals and systems.  He was also admitted to the 2013 MIT freshman class.

If they are not already, colleges are likely to charge for certificates of completion as well as transcripts.  And it is likely that universities will recognize these courses in satisfying the requirements ford different degrees.  It is also likely that some residency requirement will be required by many schools.  Nevertheless, MOOCS offer welcome degrees of freedom in earning degrees.  And this definitely should have a positive impact on reducing the current ridiculous costs of degrees.

MOOCS are already ideal for autodidacts.  They are also ideal for older individuals who want to keep sharp and grow cognitively.  sYou can become an expert in a field, start on the road to fulfillment  and simply bypass formal degrees.  In my personal experience, I’ve found degrees to be an unreliable indication of a knowledgeable individual.  I remain incredulous that many people I know who have college degrees actually have college degrees.  I know of people with graduate degrees who don’t seem to be able to write coherently.  Seeing a transcript with courses and grades would be much more informative than a degree.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.