Posts Tagged ‘stimulator mode’

Social Prosthetic Systems

March 22, 2019

This is the sixth post in series of posts based on a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller titled “Top Brain, Bottom Brain.” The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” When we don’t have the ability or skill to do something we need to do, we should turn to someone (or something) else for help. Sometimes there is a reluctance to ask for help. The authors recommendation is to overcome a reluctance to ask for help. Then the question is to whom, exactly, should we reach out to. The answers can be found in the principles of what the authors call social prosthetic systems, a name coined by drawing an analogy to physical prosthetic systems. Should we lose a leg, we would rely on a prosthesis to walk. The prosthesis makes up for shortcomings allowing one either to accomplish a task or to better accomplish a task or achieve an objective. Whenever we use a calculator we are using a cognitive prosthesis.

The authors note that the Internet has evolved into what can be called the mother of all cognitive prosthesis—the place many of us turn, typically via Google and other search engines to find facts, directions, images, translations, calendars, and more. We store personal data and cherished memories in the cloud, from which they can easily be retrieved. James Gleick, author of “The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood”, calls the many billions of pages that constitute the Internet “the global prosthetic brain.”

The authors note that this statement is not quite correct. The Internet is a vast memory, but less useful as a tool of reasoning—especially when emotion is involved. Despite its informational power, the Internet is of limited use when we need wise advice to help us navigate a thorny situation. The main cognitive prosthesis we rely on for such help is not software or machines, but other people: individuals who can help us extend our intelligence and discover and regulate our emotions. In the lingo of the healthy memory blog, these social prosthetic systems are part of Transactive Memory. There is an entire category of posts labeled Transactive Memory. Transactive Memory is memory that cannot be accessed directly from our brains. Paper, technology, and our fellow humans constitute Transactive Memory. So these Social Prosthetic Systems are part of Transactive Memory.

As the senior author defined it in his first paper on the idea, social prosthetic systems are “human relationships that extend one’s emotional or cognitive capacities. In such systems, other people serve as prosthetic devices, filling in shortcomings in an individual’s cognitive or emotional abilities.” The authors note that with the possible exception of a committed hermit, every person belongs to one or more of these systems.

The authors present an example of our being in an emotionally fraught situation—on the verge of breaking up with a spouse or partner. “Your partner complains that you work too much, and you feel trapped between the requirements of your job and your desire to maintain the relationship. You would probably not want to seek the counsel of someone who typically operates in Stimulator or Adaptor mode. A person operating in Stimulator Mode might simply offer a knee-jerk reaction, perhaps giving you the first idea that springs to mind (“Maybe you just need to explain why your job is so important to you”) and a person operating in Adaptor Mode might try to minimize the issue (“Life has its ups and downs—if you wait awhile this will probably get better”). So that would leave you with the choice of counsel from someone who typically operates in Mover Move or Perceiver Mode. And that choice would depend in part on your goals for the outcome. If you wanted strategic help on how to handle the situation, the theory suggests the person in Mover Mode would be the most appropriate (perhaps suggesting ways to achieve more work/life balance by avoiding work on weekends). But if you wanted reflection on how you were actually feeling, and on what you wanted and needed, the person who typically operates in Perceiver Mode might be more helpful (listening as you try to sort out why you feel so torn). Putting this together, you might want to seek counsel from two separate people to garner the benefits of both kinds of input. Thus informed, you could more wisely make decisions.

Top Brain, Bottom Brain

March 17, 2019

The title of this post is identical to the title of a book by Stephen Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller. The subtitle is “Harnessing the Power of the Four Cognitive Modes.” This book presents a new and useful way of thinking about our brains, that can not only increase how effectively we use our brains, but can also help us get along better with others.

The Theory of Cognitive Modes is built on conclusions arising from decades of research that have remained inside scientific circles. To the knowledge of the authors this book is the first time that these findings have been systematically brought to a mainstream audience.

The theory is built on three fundamental ideas:

The first is that the top part and the bottom part of the brain do different jobs. The top brain formulates plans and puts them into motion, and the bottom brain classifies and interprets incoming information about the world. For example, the bottom brain allows you to recognize a friend you see across the room and realize that she might be able to give you good advice about a problem at work; the top brain formulates one plan to walk over and another plan about how to broach the topic.

The second fundamental idea is that the two parts of the brain always work together; the top brain uses information from the bottom brain to formulate its plans (and to reformulate them as they unfold over time). The two parts of the brain are a single system.

The third idea is that different people may rely to greater or lesser extents on the two parts of the brain. Some tend to use both parts deeply, some favor the bottom brain, some favor the top brain, and some don’t typically lean too hard on either part.

The different ways that people rely on the two parts of the brain define four basic cognitive modes: general ways of thinking that underlie how a person approaches the world and interacts with other people. Each of us has a typical cognitive mode, which affects how we relate to others and how we deal with situations we encounter.

The theory has four cognitive modes:
The mover mode has a deeply utilized bottom and a deeply utilized top.
The perceiver mode has a deeply utilized bottom and a minimally utilized top.
The stimulator mode has a deeply utilized top and a minimally utilized bottom.
The adaptor mode has a minimally utilized bottom and a minimally utilized top.

A test follows that allows you to understand where you fall on these dimensions.

Twenty statements will follow which you use to rate yourself on a 5 point scale where 1 is disagree and 5 is agree.

When I look at a garden, I usually notice the patterns of plantings.
If I like a piece of furniture, I want to know exactly where it will fit in my home before I buy it.
I prefer to make plans about what to do before I jump into a situation.
In a museum, I like to classify paintings according to their style.
I try to examine items in a store very carefully.
I like to assemble all the necessary tools before I begin a project.
I prefer to call ahead to a hotel if I may not get there until late in the day.
As a rule, I try to react appropriately to my environment.
I like to examine the surfaces of objects in detail.
When I first turn on the TV, I like to identify specific people on the screen
I effortlessly note the types of dogs that I see.
I like to think about what to expect after I make a decision.
I like to look at people’s faces and try to classify where their ancestors came from.
I think of myself as someone who plans ahead.
Before I buy a new shirt, I think about whether it will go with my other clothes.
When I hear music, I like to identify different instruments.
I take the time to appreciate paintings when I go to an art exhibition.
I enjoy making plans.
In the morning, I often think hard about what I’ll need to do that day.
I prefer to examine objects closely enough to see how color changes on their surfaces.

To get your score:
Add up your ratings for items 2,3,6,7,8,12,14,15,18, and 19.
This is your top brain score.
Then add your ratings for items 1,4,5,9,10,11,13,16,17, and 20. This is your bottom brain score.

Summary of top brain scores
47 or higher Very strong tendency to use top-brain processing deeply.
38-46 Tendency to use top-brain processing deeply
Ave 37.5
28-37 Tendency not to use top-brain processing deeply
27 or less Very strong tendency not to use top-brain processing deeply

Summary of bottom brain processing

43 or higher Very strong tendency to use bottom-brain processing deeply
34-42 Tendency to use bottom-brain processing deeply
Ave 33.5
24-43 Tendency not to use bottom-brain processing deeply
23 or less Very strong tendency not to se bottom-brain processing deeply

Summary of the Four Processing Modes

Mover Mode. According to the theory, you often operate in Mover Mode if you scored over the average for both top and bottom-brain processing.

Perceiver Mode. You often operate in Perceiver Mode if you scored over the mean for bottom-brain processing, but at or below the mean for top-brain processing

Stimulator Mode. You often rely on Stimulator Mode if you scored over the mean for top-brain processing, but at or below the mean for bottom-brain processing.

Adaptor Mode. You often operate in Adaptor Mode if you scored at or below the mean for both top-brain and bottom-brain processing.

Specific examples will be provided for each mode in the following four posts. Then the concluding posts will elaborate further on this concept.