Posts Tagged ‘Two System View’

The Assault on Intelligence

May 19, 2018

Michael V. Hayden has served as the director of both the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). His latest book is “The Assault on Intelligence: American Security in an Age of Lies.” Actually this title is modest. The underlying reality is that this is an attack on American Democracy.

In 2016 the Oxford’s English Dictionary’s word of the year was “post truth,” a condition where objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief. A. C. Grayling characterized the emerging post-truth world as “over-valuing opinion and preference at the expense of proof and data.” Oxford Dictionaries president Casper Grathwohl predicted that the term could become “one of the defining words of our time.” Change “could” to ‘has,” and change one to “is,” and, unfortunately, you have an accurate characterization of today’s reality.

Kahneman’s two-system view of cognition is fitting here. This is a concept that should be familiar to healthy memory blog readers. System 1, is called, intuition, and refers to the most common mode of our cognitive processing. Normal conversation, or the performance of skilled tasks are System 1 processes. Emotional processing is also done in System 1. System 2 is named Reasoning. It is controlled processing that is slow, serial, and effortful. It is also flexible. This is what we commonly think of as conscious thought. One of the roles of System 2 is to monitor System 1 for processing errors, but System 2 is slow and System 1 is fast, so errors do slip through.

Post truth processing is exclusively System 1. It involves neither proof nor accurate data, and is frequently emotional. That is the post truth world. One of the most disturbing facts in Hayden’s book, is that Trump does not care about objective truth. Truth is whatever he feels at a particular time. The possibility that Trump might have a delusional disorder, in which he is incapable of distinguishing fact from fiction has been mentioned in previous health memory blog posts. That was proposed as a possible reason for the enormous number of lies he tells. But it is equally possible that he has no interest in objective truth. As far as he is concerned, objective truth does not exist.

Tom Nichols writes in his 2017 book “The Death of Expertise” “The United States is now a country obsessed with the worship of its own ignorance…Google-fueled, Wikipedia-based, blog sodden…[with] an insistence that strongly held opinions are indistinguishable from facts.” Nichols also writes about the Dunning-Kruger effect, which should also be familiar to healthy memory blog readers. The Dunning-Kruger Effect describes the phenomenon of people thinking they know much more about a topic than they actually know, compared to the knowledgeable individual who is painfully aware of how much he still doesn’t know about the topic in question.

Trump is an ideal example of the Dunning-Kruger Effect. Mention any topic and Trump will claim that he knows more about the topic than anyone else. He knows more about fighting wars than his generals, He knows more about debt than anyone else (from a personal experience this might be true). He told potential voters that he was the only one who knew how to solve all their problems, without explaining how he knew or what his approach was. In point of fact, the only things he knows, and is unfortunately an expert at, are how to con and cheat people.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Think Like a Freak

July 24, 2016

The title of this post is the title of a book by ”Steven D. Levitt & Stephen J. Dubnar.  The subtitle is “The Authors of Freakonomics Offer to Retrain Your Brain.”  The beginning chapter offers the following two  sentences, “The modern world demands that we all think a bit more productively, more creatively, more rationally, that we think from a different angle, with a different set of muscles, with a different set of expectations, that we think with neither fear nor favor, with neither blind optimism nor sour skepticism.  That we think like—ahem-a Freak.

Their first two books, “Freakonomics,” and “Superfreakpnomics” were animated by the follow set of ideas:
Incentives are the cornerstones of modern life.
Knowing what to measure, and how to measure it, can make a complicated world less so.
The conventional wisdom is often wrong.
Correlation does not equal causality.

They also warn us about letting our biases color our view of the world.  “A growing body of research suggests that even the smartest people tend to seek out evidence that confirms what they already think, rather than new information that would give them a more robust view of reality.”   HM would like to inset here that one of the major sources of biases are from ideologies.  Ideologies are dangerous as are the ideologues who promulgate them.

They also warn us about running with the herd.  “Even on the most important issues of the day, we often adopt the views of our friends.”

The authors also note, “Another barrier to thinking like a Freak is that most people are too busy to rethink the way we think—or to even spend much time thinking at all.”  To underscore this point they quote George Bernard Shaw, a world-class writer and a foundered of the London School of Economics who wrote, “Few people think more than two or three times a year.”  He reportedly said, “I have made an international reputation for myself by thinking once or twice a week.”

HM would like to cast these statements in terms of Kanheman’s  Two System view of cognition.  System 1 is fast, automatic, and emotional.  System 2 requires mental effort and can be thought of as thinking.  Clearly Shaw was speaking about serious and prolonged System 2 processing.

There will be several more posts base on “Think Like a Freak,” but there is much more to be found by reading the book.

© Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com, 2016. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Douglas Griffith and healthymemory.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.